With individual myofiber necrosis, there is loss of __________ from the muscle; ____________ enter the damaged myofiber to carry off damaged filaments.
The combination of __(3)__ contribute to the appearance of white muscle disease associated with individual myofiber necrosis.
loss of myoglobin, deposition of mineral, presence of macrophages
What does white muscle disease look like?
multifocal white streaks without apparent reaction/damage to adjacent myofibers
Describe the repair of degeneration/necrosis of muscle.
lysosomal degradation of damaged filaments or removal by macrophages
___________ is possible reversible.
early coagulation of filaments
Regeneration requires the presence of ____________.
an intact basal lamina
If regeneration is not possible, healing will be by ____________ or _____________ of muscle after dead tissue has been removed.
sequestration; fibrous replacement/atrophy
Causes of sterile degeneration/necrosis of muscle at the organ level. (3)
vascular occlusion by thrombosis, direct external pressure, compartment syndrome
Causes of sterile degeneration/necrosis of muscle at the myofiber level. (4)
toxicities, deficiencies (vitamin E, selenium), exertional myopathy (lactic acidosis), underlying defect in muscle metabolism
The pathogenesis of sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis involves the failure to recapture __________ due to ___________ or ____________.
calcium; energy failure; damage to sarcoplasmic reticulum
With sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis, the muscle remains in _____________ causing _________ of ____________; mitochondria try to sequester _________ but cause...
contracted state; coagulation; contractile proteins; cytoplasmic calcium; their own degeneration with subsequent energy failure
With sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis, free cytosolic calcium activates _______________ within the muscle cell.
Blackleg is an example of ____________ caused by ___________.
infectious inflammation of muscle; Clostridia chauvoei
With Clostridia chauvoei infection, ingested spores localize in __________; ___________ activates spores and there is ________-induced local muscle necrosis with __(2)__ with ________ inflammatory exudate.
muscle; ischemia/hypoxia of muscle; exotoxin; hemorrhage and emphysema (gas formation); little
Malignant edema is an example of ________________ caused by ____________.
infectious inflammation of muscle; Clostridium septicum
Clostrium septicum enters through a ________ without ___________, allowing ___________; ___________ produced by the bacteria cause local __(3)__ with _______ inflammatory exudate.
wound; blood supply to bring oxygen; anaerobic metabolism; exotoxins; necrosis, hemorrhage, and emphysema; little
Masticatory myositis is a(n) _____________ disease due to ____________________.
autoimmune; cross-reactivity b/w some exogenous Ag and MHC expresses on the muscles of mastication
What fact contributes to masticatory myositis?
the muscles of mastication in the dog are a special myofiber type not seen in other muscles
With masticatory myositis, there is _______________ and/or _____________ in the early stages.
lymphoplasmacytic; eosinophilic myositis
With masticatory myositis, there is ______________ in the chronic stages.