MS- Atrophy Degeneration Necrosis of Muscle.txt

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Mawad
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300789
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MS- Atrophy Degeneration Necrosis of Muscle.txt
Updated:
2015-04-14 16:40:50
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vetmed muscle patho
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vetmed muscle patho
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  1. Why does rigor mortis occur?
    muscle relaxation require energy to keep calcium sequestered in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and pump calcium out of the cell against the conc gradient
  2. The onset of rigor mortis is dependent upon _____________; _______________ animals will have more delayed onset of rigor.
    stored energy; better fed and well-rested
  3. The passage of rigor mortis is due to _____________.
    autolysis
  4. Reduction of muscle mass due to failure to replace myofilaments lost during normal skeletal muscle turnover; reversible.
    disuse atrophy
  5. ________________ would be a very sensitive means to detect early disuse atrophy.
    Quantitative microscopy
  6. Reduction in muscle mass due to failure to replace myofilaments and accelerated lysosomal and non-lysosomal filament breakdown.
    denervation atrophy
  7. Describe the microscopic morphology of denervation atrophy in comparison to disuse atrophy.
    denervation atrophy- extreme variation in size of myofibers because of compensatory hypertrophy, which does NOT occur with disuse atrophy
  8. With denervation atrophy, re0innervation may be possible if...
    it is not due to the loss of a major nerve branch; more distal is better.
  9. Why is it difficult to describe muscle with the modifiers necrosis and degeneration?
    the size of each cell and syncytial nature of each cell; portions of the cell could be irreversibly damaged, while other portions are not
  10. What are the types of muscle degeneration/necrosis?
    extensive or localized muscle coagulation necrosis of all tissues in the muscle, compartment syndrome, individual myofiber necrosis
  11. Extensive or localized muscle coagulation necrosis of all tissues in the muscle is often due to ____________ or ___________; dead muscle appears __(2)__.
    vascular compression; vascular occlusion; firm red or white
  12. Compartment syndrome is _____________ of _______________; there is ____________ of the muscle during contraction, causing ____________ due to the confined space defined by the compartment.
    coagulation necrosis; well-developed muscle in a confined space; volume expansion; vascular compression
  13. Individual myofiber necrosis is _____________ and ____________ of myofilaments often with ____________, and the remaining tissue in the muscle being normal.
    coagulation; liquefaction necrosis; mineralization
  14. With individual myofiber necrosis, there is loss of __________ from the muscle; ____________ enter the damaged myofiber to carry off damaged filaments.
    myoglobin; macrophages
  15. The combination of __(3)__ contribute to the appearance of white muscle disease associated with individual myofiber necrosis.
    loss of myoglobin, deposition of mineral, presence of macrophages
  16. What does white muscle disease look like?
    multifocal white streaks without apparent reaction/damage to adjacent myofibers
  17. Describe the repair of degeneration/necrosis of muscle.
    lysosomal degradation of damaged filaments or removal by macrophages
  18. ___________ is possible reversible.
    early coagulation of filaments
  19. Regeneration requires the presence of ____________.
    an intact basal lamina
  20. If regeneration is not possible, healing will be by ____________ or _____________ of muscle after dead tissue has been removed.
    sequestration; fibrous replacement/atrophy
  21. Causes of sterile degeneration/necrosis of muscle at the organ level. (3)
    vascular occlusion by thrombosis, direct external pressure, compartment syndrome
  22. Causes of sterile degeneration/necrosis of muscle at the myofiber level. (4)
    toxicities, deficiencies (vitamin E, selenium), exertional myopathy (lactic acidosis), underlying defect in muscle metabolism
  23. The pathogenesis of sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis involves the failure to recapture __________ due to ___________ or ____________.
    calcium; energy failure; damage to sarcoplasmic reticulum
  24. With sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis, the muscle remains in _____________ causing _________ of ____________; mitochondria try to sequester _________ but cause...
    contracted state; coagulation; contractile proteins; cytoplasmic calcium; their own degeneration with subsequent energy failure
  25. With sterile degeneration/necrosis of individual myofiber necrosis, free cytosolic calcium activates _______________ within the muscle cell.
    degradative enzymes
  26. Blackleg is an example of ____________ caused by ___________.
    infectious inflammation of muscle; Clostridia chauvoei
  27. With Clostridia chauvoei infection, ingested spores localize in __________; ___________ activates spores and there is ________-induced local muscle necrosis with __(2)__ with ________ inflammatory exudate.
    muscle; ischemia/hypoxia of muscle; exotoxin; hemorrhage and emphysema (gas formation); little
  28. Malignant edema is an example of ________________ caused by ____________.
    infectious inflammation of muscle; Clostridium septicum
  29. Clostrium septicum enters through a ________ without ___________, allowing ___________; ___________ produced by the bacteria cause local __(3)__ with _______ inflammatory exudate.
    wound; blood supply to bring oxygen; anaerobic metabolism; exotoxins; necrosis, hemorrhage, and emphysema; little
  30. Masticatory myositis is a(n) _____________ disease due to ____________________.
    autoimmune; cross-reactivity b/w some exogenous Ag and MHC expresses on the muscles of mastication
  31. What fact contributes to masticatory myositis?
    the muscles of mastication in the dog are a special myofiber type not seen in other muscles
  32. With masticatory myositis, there is _______________ and/or _____________ in the early stages.
    lymphoplasmacytic; eosinophilic myositis
  33. With masticatory myositis, there is ______________ in the chronic stages.
    atrophic myositis
  34. Autoimmune myositis includes...
    SLE, idiopathic polymyositis (lymphoplasmacytic myositis)

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