MS- Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injuries.txt

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Mawad
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300790
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MS- Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injuries.txt
Updated:
2015-04-14 16:41:17
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vetmed CCL rupture
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vetmed CCL rupture
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  1. The most common cause of hind limb lameness in small animals.
    CCL rupture
  2. What are the 3 main functions of the CCL?
    to prevent cranial translation of the tibia (cranial drawer), hyperextension of stifle, and internal rotation of the stifle.
  3. What are the 2 bands of the CCL? What are the functions of each?
    craniomedial (prevent cranial drawer in extension and flexion) and caudolateral (prevent cranial drawer in extension)
  4. What are the functions of the medial and lateral menisci?
    shock absorption and padding for the stifle joint
  5. _____________ becomes commonly damaged with a CCL tear.
    Medial meniscus
  6. The medial meniscus has a _____________, which anchors it to the tibial plateau; with instability occurring after CCL y=tear, the medial meniscus is trapped underneath the _____________.
    caudal meniscotibial ligament; subluxating femoral condyle
  7. The majority of CCL injuries are a result of _________________, and rupture is _____________ and initiated by _______________.
    chronic degenerative processes; incrementally progressive; stretching/partial tearing
  8. Seemingly acute CCL tears may have _______________ on radiographs as the ____________ released by the injured ligament cause ___(2)___.
    chronic degenerative changes; inflammatory mediators; synovitis and osteoarthritis
  9. Many dogs will ____________________ within 2 years of the first CCL injury.
    rupture the contralateral CCL
  10. 3 conformational differences that may play a role in CCL injuries.
    abnormally steep tibial plateau angle, intercondylar notch width, or post-legged pelvic limb posture may play a role
  11. What endocrine abnormalities play a role in weakened ligaments? (2)
    high levels of endogenous corticosteroids, age at neuter
  12. Other diseases affecting the stifle joint that may play a role in CCL injuries.
    medial patella luxation or osteochondrosis dissecans
  13. Large breed dogs have an inherited predilection for CCL rupture because of... (3)
    increased collagen turnover, smaller collagen fibrils, greater joint laxity
  14. With CCL rupture, the degree of lameness _____________ the degree of ligament injury.
    does not correlate to
  15. Physical exam findings that are associated with CCL rupture. (5)
    disuse muscle atrophy, joint effusion of stifle making patellar tendon indistinct, [chronic injury] periarticular thickening due to fibrosis (medial buttress), crepitus, pain
  16. With a CCL rupture, there is pain on ______________.
    hyperextension
  17. If you hear a click or pop with range of motion tests, it suggests _____________________.
    medial meniscal bucket-handle tear
  18. The cranial drawer test evaluates whether the ....
    proximal tibia can be translated cranially in relation to the distal femur.
  19. Finger positions for the cranial drawer test:
    • 1. patella and lateral fabella
    • 2. tibial crest and fibular head
  20. With a full CCL tear, cranial drawer should be detected with the stifle in....
    With a partial tear of the craniomedial band of the CCL, cranial drawer is detected in...
    extension and flexion; flexion
  21. The tibial compression/ thrust test mimics _____________ and can lead to _______________ of the proximal tibia with CCL rupture.
    weight-bearing; cranial subluxation
  22. To perform a tibial thrust test, the _____________ is flexed to its maximum while the ____________ is kept in a neutral position; flexing the hock in this position will apply tension to the ____________, causing the proximal tibia to thrust with a complete CCL tear.
    tibiotarsal joint; stifle; gastrocnemius m.
  23. Definitive radiographic sign to diagnose CCL tear.
    cranial subluxation of the tibia seen on lateral radiograph
  24. The earliest radiographic sign of CCL rupture is ______________ within the stifle joint causing cranial displacement of the __________________ and caudal displacement of the _______________.
    increase in soft tissue density; infrapatellar fat pad; popliteal fascia
  25. 4 conservative treatments of CCL rupture.
    restricted activity, anti-inflammatory pain meds, weight management, and chondroprotectives
  26. Surgical technique that involves the intra-articular replacement of the cranial cruciate ligament using a fascial/parapatellar tendon strip.
    intracapsular technique
  27. Surgical technique that provides stability on the outside of the stifle joint capsule, most commonly with the lateral suture technique.
    extracapsular technique
  28. Extracapsular technique in which heavy-gauge suture is passed b/w the lateral fabella and the tibial tuberosity.
    suture technique
  29. Extracapsular technique that moves the insertion of the lateral collateral ligament more cranially.
    fibular head transposition
  30. Surgical technique to alter the biomechanical function of the stifle joint.
    osteotomy
  31. Three types of osteotomies done to repair CCL tears.
    tibial plateau level osteotomy (TPLO), tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA), and proximal tibial closing wedge osteotomy
  32. Osteotomies alter the ____________ that travel through the stifle joint.
    weight-bearing forces
  33. Lesions of the CCL begin in the ____________; there is... (2)
    core of the ligament; decrease in cellularity and degeneration of collagen
  34. Mineralized bodies from OCD at the back of the joint in the ____________ may cause CCL trauma.
    long digital extensor tendon sheath
  35. In large breed dogs, ___________ deformity often leads to ______________, which predisposing them for CCL rupture.
    veras; medial patella luxation
  36. Measurement of proximal and distal joint angles.
    center of rotational angulation (CORA)
  37. Immune-mediated, erosive, deforming,neutrophilic arthritis.
    rhematoid arthritis
  38. Degenerative arthritis.
    polyarthritis

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