Card Set Information
The ______________ are critical to hold the body eight of the horse.
interdigitations of the lamellae
If pressure, bleeding, or edema occur internally to the hoof capsule, severe ___________________ occurs.
disruption of the vascular supply
Soft friable material that falls out of the white line is called ____________, and this is a sign of ___________.
seedy toe; chronicity
2 drugs commonly used as analgesics with laminitis.
Basic principals for acute laminitis: (2)
preserve thickness of sole, spread the weight-bearing load to the whole foot
Basic principals of chronic laminitis: (4)
decrease the shock of impact, move center of pressure to the most comfortable location, enhance ease of movement, protect foot with boots or pads
Soft tissue layer over the bone; richly vascular papillae.
The coronary band is critical because...
the hoof grows down from it; any permanent defect in the coronary band will produce a permanent defect in the hoof wall, which can be an entry site for bacteria or a cause of pain/tissue separation
Chalky horn-filling space b/w the horn of the hoof wall and the sole; where the interdigitating laminae are.
The surface of _________ from the laminae slide relative to the cells to the the horn moving distally as new horn is made at the _________.
keratin; coronary band
There should be ________ depth of sole.
The rotation vector for the hoof.
__________ to _________ should be a vertical line if the horse is in balance.
Hell bulb; cannon bone
For a horse to be in balance, the 3 phalanges should be __________ and ________________.
in a straight line; parallel to the hoof wall
Signs of inflammation.
heat, pain, swelling, increased tissue pressure within capsule
___________ and ___________ cause tissue breakdown.
metalloproteases; degradative enzymes
How do you radiographically assess the position of P3 in a case of laminitis?
If P3 has sunk downward, what can you palpate in the standing horse?
depression/dip at the coronary band
A laminitis venogram shows no blood flow in the ____________; therefore, you feel...
laminae; heat at coronary band and pounding digital pulse (blood shunted at coronary plexus)
__________ dissects up the white line, causing it to be wider on x-ray; this allows...
Air/gas; dirt and bacteria to get b/w the horn and laminae
It h=takes most horses _________ to grow an entirely new hoof wall.
5 risk factors for laminitis.
grain/grass overload, sepsis/endotoxemia, galloping on hard ground (road founder), supporting limb overload, metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance)
What is the characteristic body type of a horse with insulin resistance?
cresty neck, fat deposits around tail head
What is the characteristic feature of a horse with a pituitary tumor, causing Pars Intermedia dysfunction?
old horse with long curly hair coat
Clinical signs of acute laminitis. (6)
heat in foot, walking on eggshells, sawhorse stance (front feet stretched out, hind feet under abdomen), pounding digital pulse, hoof tester sensitivity, abaxial nerve block eliminates lameness
Clinical signs of chronic laminitis. (3)
variable lameness, dished dorsal hoof, rings on hoof irregular
Describe a dished hoof.
back of hoof is growing normally and front of hoof is growing more slowly
What do you look for to evaluate a radiograph of a horse with chronic laminitis? (5)
P3 rotation, short P3, sinking P3, loss of sole, flat sole
How do you treat acute laminitis? (5)
treat primary problem, pain relief by icing feet, phenylbutazone, support sole, confine animal
How do you treat chronic laminitis? (5)
limit grass turnout, control body weight, shoes, limit exercise, slowly correct rotation by dubbing toe and lowering heel