MS- SA Spinal Diseases.txt

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
300797
Filename:
MS- SA Spinal Diseases.txt
Updated:
2015-04-14 16:44:42
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vetmed small animal spinal
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vetmed, small animal spinal diseases
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  1. With intervertebral disc extrusion, the ____________ degenerates, dehydrates, and hardens, causing it to extrude through a tear in the _________, causing...
    nucleus pulposus; annulus fibrosis; spinal cord and/or nerve root compression
  2. ____________ breeds are more likely to be affected with IVDE.
    Chondrodystrophic (weinies, shih tzus, bassets)
  3. The clinical signs of IVDE have a(n) __________ onset, and clinical signs include... (5)
    acute; pain, paresis, paralysis, ataxia, root signature
  4. Lameness or pain in a limb due to nerve root compression.
    root signature
  5. On a radiograph, signs of IVDE may include __(2)__, but you need _________ to definitively diagnose IVDE.
    narrowed disc space,mineralized disc; CT or MRI
  6. Describe medical treatment of IVDE. (3)
    rest, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants
  7. Describe surgical management of IVDE and when it is warranted.
    when unresponsive to medical treatment or neurologic deficits worsen; hemilaminectomy(thoracic or lumbar) or ventral slot (cervical) to remove material compressing spinal cord
  8. With intervertebral disc protrusion (IVDP), the __________ and __________ degenerate and bulge into the spinal canal.
    nucleus pulposus; annulus fibrosis
  9. IVDP onset is ________; clinical signs include...
    slow and progressive; spinal ataxia, paresis, pain
  10. ________ are most likely to be affected by IVDP.
    Large breed dogs
  11. Describe the conservative treatment of IVDP.
    prednisone, moderation in activity (NOT strict confinement) [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT IS PREFERRED FOR IVDP BECAUSE IT IS A CHRONIC DISEASE AND USUALLY IN MULTIPLE LOCATIONS]
  12. How does Prednisone help with conservative management of IVDP?
    reduces vasogenic edema in the spinal cord
  13. Wobbler's syndrome is aka ____________.
    caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy
  14. What are the two forms of Wobbler's syndrome?
    disc associated and osseous associated
  15. With disc associated Wobbler's syndrome, there is ____________ and _____________ that cause _________ compression of the spinal cord.
    disc protrusion; thickening of the dorsal longitudinal ligament; ventral
  16. Disc associated Wobbler's syndrome has a(n) ___________ onset, and clinical signs include... (4)
    slow and progressive; ataxia, tetraparesis, 2-engine gait, neck pain
  17. __________ are most likely to be affected by disc associated Wobbler's syndrome.
    Older large breed dogs
  18. Disc associated Wobbler's syndrome radiographs may show _____________ or ____________, but you need ________ to make a definitive diagnosis.
    disc space narrowing; upward tipping of cranial end of vertebrae; MRI
  19. Medical treatment of disc associated Wobbler's syndrome involves...
    prednisone or NSAIDs and moderation in activity
  20. Surgical treatment of disc associated Wobbler's syndrome involves...
    distraction and stabilization; disc replacement
  21. With osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome, there is ____________ of the ____________ and ___________, and _______________ of the _____________, causing __________ compression of the spinal cord.
    bone proliferation; articular facets; dorsal lamina; thickening; ligamentum flavum; dorsolateral
  22. ____________ are most likely to be affected by osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome.
    young adult large breed dogs
  23. The onset of osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome is ___________, and clinical signs include... (4)
    slow and progressive; ataxia, tetraparesis, 2-engine gait, SOMETIMES neck pain
  24. Osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome radiographs may show ___________, but you need _________ to confirm diagnosis.
    degenerative changes of articular facets; MRI
  25. Describe medical treatment of osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome. (3)
    Prednisone or NSAIDs, moderation in activity, weight management
  26. Describe surgical treatment of osseous associated Wobbler's syndrome.
    dorsal/dorsolateral laminectomy (NOT CURATIVE)
  27. With lumbosacral stenosis, there is ___________ of the lumbosacral spinal canal due to ___(4)___.
    narrowing; disc protrusion, bone proliferation, thickening of the ligamentum flavum and dorsal longitudinal ligament
  28. ___________ are most likely to be affected by lumbosacral stenosis.
    middle aged/older large breed dogs (ESPECIALLY GSD)
  29. The onset of lumbosacral stenosis is ___________, and clinical signs include... (5)
    slow and progressive; low LS pain, pelvic limb weakness +/- lameness, incontinence, low tail carriage
  30. Diagnose lumbosacral stenosis via _________ to evaluate the...
    MRI; spinal canal and intervertebral foramen
  31. Describe medical treatment of lumbosacral stenosis. (2)
    rest, NSAIDs
  32. Describe surgical treatment of lumbosacral stenosis.
    dorsal laminectomy- good for pain control but may not resolve neurologic symptoms
  33. Atlantoaxial subluxation is usually caused by __________ of the __________; abnormal ____________ of the ________ may be a factor.
    aplasia; dens; ligamentous support; dens
  34. __________ are most likely to be affected by atlantoaxial subluxation.
    Young toy breed dogs
  35. Clinical signs of atlantoaxial subluxation include... (3)
    neck pain, tetraparesis/plegia, ataxia of all limbs
  36. Atlantoaxial subluxation radiographs show...
    increased space b/w dorsal lamina of C1 and spinous process of C2; may see absence of dens
  37. Describe medical treatment atlantoaxial subluxation. (2)
    neck splint, NSAIDs or Prednisone
  38. Describe the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation.
    stabilize with pins and bone cement
  39. What is discospondylitis?
    Infection of the vertebral end plates or intervertebral disc due to staph, strep, E. coli, brucella, or fungus
  40. How does infection usually reach the IVD to cause discospondylitis?
    hematogenous spread
  41. With discospondylitis, there is destruction of the ________, lysis of ____________, instability of the ________,and soft tissue and bone ____________.
    disc; bony endplates; spine; proliferation
  42. ____________ are the most likely to be affected with discospondylitis.
    Older large breed, pure bred dogs
  43. Clinical signs of discospondylitis include... (3)
    spinal pain, +/- signs of systemic illness, uncommonly neurologic deficits
  44. Discospondylitis radiographs show ________ of the disc space, ____________ of the end plates, and soft tissue and bone ____________.
    collapse; concentric lysis; proliferation
  45. Describe the treatment of discospondylitis. (2)
    long term antibiotics, rarely needs surgical stabilization

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