MS- Tendon and Ligament Disorders.txt

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Author:
Mawad
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300798
Filename:
MS- Tendon and Ligament Disorders.txt
Updated:
2015-04-14 16:45:11
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vetmed tendon ligament
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vetmed, tendon and ligament disorders
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  1. The most common injuries to the equine soft tissue of the limbs occurs in the _____________ and in the ______________ at its origin.
    superficial digital flexor tendon; suspensory ligament
  2. Lacerations tend to occur on the ___________ of equine hind limbs and affect the ____________.
    front; extensor tendons
  3. Part of a developmental orthopedic disease in young horses that causes them to "knuckle over," they can't straighten the leg without a lot of pull or manual stretching.
    contracted tendons
  4. For weanlings/yearlings that develop flexural deformity of the coffin joint (club foot), you treat by... (3)
    trim off the long heel, provide a toe extension, and cut the distal check ligament
  5. For yearlings with flexural deformity of the fetlock, treat by... (3)
    diet/exercise adjustment, corrective trimming, reduce pain
  6. What is recommended for chronic pain after a suspensory injury? (2)
    retinacular release and neurectomy
  7. Prognosis for tendonitis and suspensory desmitis depends on...
    the extent of the damage
  8. Lacerations of the ___________ have a good prognosis.
    extensor tendons
  9. Tendons and ligaments contain __________ collagen.
    type I
  10. In the equine superficial digital flexor tendon has a rapid increase (peak at 2 yrs) in ______________ and declines progressively with skeletal maturity.
    cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)
  11. Second most abundant matrix protein in young tendons.
    cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)
  12. Specialized fibroblasts that repair tendon when immature.
    tenocytes
  13. Degenerative change in tenocyte direction that resembles fibrocartilage.
    chrondormetaplasia
  14. outer or parietal layers of tendons
    epitenon
  15. fine connective tissue b/w the strands in a tenon
    endotenon
  16. In a relaxed tendon, tendon fascicles are __________.
    crimped/waveform
  17. layer around epitenon in tendon area outside tendon sheath
    paratenon
  18. attachments of tendon within tendon sheath that has blood supply
    mesotenon
  19. Tendons provide ____________ of muscle force to __________ across __________.
    passive transfer; bony attachments; joints
  20. Ligaments provide ____________ of ____________.
    resistance to distraction; two bony attachments
  21. Force per unit area in a tendon.
    stress
  22. Change in tendon length over original length.
    strain
  23. The mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments that vary as they are stretched.
    viscoelasticity
  24. Stress-strain curve shows the change of biomechanical behavior due to altered ___________; repeated loading results in a ____________; rapid loading results in a ___________.
    loading rate; less stiff tendon; stiffer tendon
  25. Percutaneous trauma of tendons/ligaments can occur with __________, a __________________.
    overstrain; sudden, single-cycle overload
  26. Tendons adapt well to exercise during __________, but poorly after __________.
    skeletal development; skeletal maturity
  27. Tendonitis is a ______________, where there is physical disruption of the ___________, breakage of __________, and __________ rupture.
    strain-induced injury; tendon matrix; collagen crosslinks; fibrillar
  28. The repair process of tendonitis involves ___________ followed by __________.
    inflammation; fibroplasia
  29. Tendon/ligament injury within the synovial sheath has _________ healing because there is __________; the most common structure affected in this way is the ____________.
    poorer; less blood supply; deep digital flexor tendon (forelimb)
  30. Equine tendon healing involves ___________ formation, which is weaker than the original tissue, predisposing the animal to __________.
    scar tissue; re-injury
  31. What are the clinically detectable phases of tendon healing?
    acute inflammatory phase, subacute reparative phase, chronic remodeling phase (consecutive, overlapping phases)
  32. The acute phase of tendon healing involves ___________, ___________, and ____________, the latter of which causes _________ of the lesion.
    inflammation; hemorrhage; proteolytic enzymes; expansion
  33. The subacute reparative phase of tendon healing peaks at __________ after injury; it involves _________, __________ accumulation, _____________ deposition, and _____________ formation.
    3 weeks; angiogenesis; fibroblast; collagen type III; intrathecal adhesion
  34. The chronic remodeling phase of tendon healing involves __________ conversion from _________ to _________; the end result has poor ________ and increased ______ on adjacent tissue.
    collagen; type III; type I; elasticity; strain
  35. Upon clinical examination of animals with tendon/ligament injuries, look for... (4)
    signs of inflammation, lameness (only initially severe), pain, subtle enlargements
  36. Effusion of the synovial tenon sheath common with tendon/ligament injuries can be assessed with _______________.
    synoviocentesis
  37. With possible tendon/ligament injuries, observe for _________ of the metacarpo(tarso)phalangeal joint.
    overextension
  38. Tendon ultrasonography has what 3 parameters?
    lesion echogenicity, axial alignment of collagen fibers, cross-sectional dimensions
  39. During the acute inflammatory phase of tendon/ligament injury, use ______ therapy, ________, and ___________, which also cause vasoconstriction; ____________ are also useful.
    cold; analgesics; anti-inflammatories; compression/coaptation
  40. 3 types of drugs used in anti-inflammatory therapy.
    NSAIDs, DMSO (steroid), controlled exercise
  41. Controlled exercise after a tendon/ligament injury maintains _________ of the tendon and promotes optimal ___________.
    gliding function; collagen remodeling
  42. Platelets contain large amounts of __________; therefore, they are used in tendon and joint therapy because...
    growth factors; activated platelets release GF and promote the healing process.
  43. What are indications for a proximal check ligament desmotomy?
    flexural limb deformity of the fetlock, SDF tendinitis
  44. Where are stem cells derived for SC therapy?
    adipose-tissue derived, BM derived
  45. What is the theory behind tendon splitting?
    decrease core lesion size, increases vascularity, draining of inflammatory mediators
  46. There are detrimental effects associated with tendon splitting if it is performed during the _____________.
    late repair phase
  47. Annular ligament syndrome is a constriction of the tissues within the ____________.
    fetlock canal
  48. What are the indications for an annular ligament desmotomy?
    primary PAL desmitis, tendinitis, infectious tenosynovitis

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