Mycology Part 1.txt

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Mycology Part 1.txt
2015-04-14 16:45:39
vetmed mycology

vetmed, mycology part 1
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  1. Toxic compounds that can be consumed and are produced by some fungi.
  2. Fungi are ___________.
  3. The cell wall of fungi...
    may or may not have chitin.
  4. The cell membrane of fungi contains ______________, which can be targeted by antifungals.
  5. What are the 3 major categories of fungi of medical importance?
    molds (multicellular), yeasts (unicellular), dimorphic fungi (either/ or)
  6. The main method of fungal identification in diagnostic labs.
    examining characteristics of hyphae, spores/fruiting bodies, and gross appearance of mycelia
  7. Basic unit of mold.
  8. 2 types of hyphae.
    septate, aseptate
  9. 3 phyla of fungi.
    zygomycota (glomeromycota), ascomycota, basidiomycota
  10. Zygomycota reproduce by...
    sexual and asexual repro
  11. Zygomycota fruiting bodies are...
    zoospores or sporangia
  12. Zygomycota have ___________ hyphae.
  13. Ascomycota reproduces by...
    sexual or asexual repro
  14. Ascomycota fruiting bodies are...
    asci and conidia
  15. Ascomycota have __________ hyphae.
  16. Aseptate hyphae are unique to ____________.
  17. Basidiomycota reproduce by...
    sexual or asexual repro
  18. Basidiomycota fruiting bodies are...
    mushrooms, some yeast, conidia-forming molds
  19. Imperfect fungi is not a true ________; they reproduce by...
    phylum; asexual repro only
  20. Imperfect fungi have __________ hyphae.
  21. Until you can see hyphae grossly, they are called ___________.
  22. Hyphae that contain fruiting bodies.
    aerial hyphae
  23. Hyphae that are below the surface and do not contain fruiting bodies.
    vegetative hyphae
  24. Arthrospores produced by Arthroconidia are unique because...
    they are released by fragmentation of hyphae.
  25. What fungi has canoe-shaped septate hyphae?
    Microsporum canis- macroconidia
  26. Sporangiospores are the fruiting bodies of _______________.
  27. Cutaneous mycoses.
  28. Entry of fungal infection requires _____________.
    diminished host resistance
  29. Decreased local resistance can occur by... (3)
    loss of normal cutaneous barriers, loss of normal bacterial flora, local immunosuppression
  30. Decreased systemic resistance can occur by... (2)
    malnutrition, immunosuppression (genetic, chemotherapy, infection)
  31. Most fungi are __________.
    obligate anaerobes
  32. Optimal growth occurs at what temp?
  33. What is the exception fungi that grows optimally at 45°C?
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  34. Pathogens causing systemic mycoses grow well at ______ [temp].
  35. Geophilic cutaneous mycoses grow and replicate in the ________ and prefer _________ environments.
    soil; humid
  36. Geophilic cutaneous mycoses are ___________ b/w animals.
    poorly transmitted
  37. Second most common dermatophyte infecting dogs.
    Microsporum gypseum- Geophilic dermatophyte
  38. Zoophilic dermatophytes are ____________ on animals; they do not...
    obligate parasites; persist or multiply in soil!!!
  39. Zoophilic dermatophytes ___________ b/w animals; they are ________.
    spread rapidly; zoonotic
  40. Zoophilic dermatophyte infecting cats.
    Microsporum canis
  41. Anthropophilic dermatophytes are ____________ of ___________.
    obligate parasites; humans
  42. 2 examples of anthropophilic dermatophytes.
    Epidermophyton spp. (Athlete's foot), Microsporum auduini (children- tinea capitis)
  43. Microsporum and Trihophyton belong to the phylum ____________; they have __________ hyphae; their fruiting bodies are ______________.
    Ascomycota; septate; asci/conidia
  44. Arthoconidia enter the body through ______________; they germinate to hyphae in the ____________ and adjacent to _________.
    abraded skin (not healthy skin); stratum corneum; hair follicles
  45. Acute inflammation associated with dermatophytes is mediated by ______ and ____________, with release of __(2)__; there is _________ and _________.
    IgE; mast cell degranulation; histamine; leukotrienes; hyeremia; edema
  46. Chronic inflammation associated with dermatophyte infection results in ____________ and __________.
    loss of hair; hyperkeratosis
  47. The natural host for Microsporum canis is the ________, but it also infects ________; _________ infection is common.
    cats; dogs; subclinical
  48. Microsporum canis is potentially __________.
  49. Microsporum persicolor is ________ and __________ and primarily affects ________.
    zoophilic; geophilic; dogs
  50. Microsporum persicolor is an _____________, meaning the ________ is not infected.
    epidermatophyte; hair shaft
  51. The #1 dermatophyte of horses in the south.
    Microsporum gypseum
  52. In areas other than the south, _____________ is the #1 dermatophyte of horses.
    Trichophyton equinum
  53. 2 Trichophyton species common in horses.
    equinum, mentagrophytes
  54. Trychophyton species most common in cattle, causing warts.
    T. verrucosum
  55. Trichophyton species common in pigs.
    Microsporum nanum
  56. Trichophyton mentagrophytes has a reservoir in __________.
    wild rodents
  57. How do you clinically diagnose dermatophyte infections?
    Wood's lamp (UV black light)
  58. What lab tests can you run to diagnose dermatophyte infections? (3)
    dermatophyte test medium (DTM), culture on Sabouraud's agar, KOH preparations on crusts and hair
  59. Woods Lamp diagnosis is most useful for diagnosing ____________; it fluoresces with ____________ produced by the organism.
    M. canis; Tryptophan metabolites
  60. A Woods Lamp can give you flase positive if...
    ointments, dead skin, or Pseudomonas (bacteria) is present.
  61. A Woods Lamp can give a false negative if...
    non-fluorescing strain, cold lamp (must heat up first)
  62. DTM will turn ________ quickly with dermatophytes, but it will turn eventually with _____________.
    red; saprophytic organisms
  63. Sporulation of dermatophytes will occur faster on ____________ medium.
  64. Treatment for dermatophytes in LA?
    increase sunlight
  65. Treatment for dermatophytes in small animals.
    topical- lime-sulfur dip, miconazole-chlorohexidine shampoo
  66. Systemic treat of dermatophytes.
    oral -azoles, griseofulvin
  67. What drugs inhibit ergosterol synthesis?
    -azoles- ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole
  68. Griseofulvin disrupts ___________ assembly, has great __________ penetration, but it is _________ and therefore is losing popularity.
    microtubule; keratin; teratogenic (can disrupt fetus/embryo)
  69. Malassezia belong to the phylum ___________; the most significant species in vet med is ____________.
    Basidomycota; M. pachydermatis
  70. Malassezia pachydermatis is a normal inhabitant of _______________ and ___________; infection results from... (4)
    mucocutaneous junctions; ears; anatomically moist, ceruminous ears, sebaceous material, atopic disease, antibiotic therapy disturbing normal microflora
  71. Malassezia pachydermatis is typically diagnosed __________ or __________.
    clinically; cytologically
  72. Malassezia is rarely ___________; it has caused disease in people when... (2)
    zoonotic; neonatal fungemia; severely immunocompromised adults
  73. Sporothrix schenkii exhibits ________, meaning...
    thermal dimorphism; at ambient temp it is a mold and at body temp it is a yeast
  74. Sporothrix schenkii causes disease in...
    horses, dogs, cat, people
  75. Sporotrichosis enters the body through...
    open wounds
  76. Sporotrichiosis spreads via __________ in the _________ form; there is _________ of masses.
    lymphatics; yeast; rupture/ulceration
  77. The host response to Sporotrichosis is mediated by _____________.
    macrophages- cell-mediated response
  78. Sporotrichosis should be a differential for _____________.
    non-healing wounds
  79. Sporotrichosis is _________, and ____________ contains infectious material.
    zoonotic; discharge from wounds
  80. Sporotrichosis is diagnosed by _____________; they look like __________.
    cytology/histo; cigar bodies
  81. Pythiosis insidiosum is present in _______________ regions of the world.
    stagnant water tropical
  82. Pythiosis insidiosum is an _________ that affects...
    oomycete; horses, dogs, humans
  83. Pythiosis insidiosum enters the body through.....
    open wounds or ingestion
  84. Pythiosis insidiosum causes chronic ________________.
    non-healing granulomas
  85. How are subcutaneous mycoses treated? (4)
    surgical debridement, amputation, systemic antifungals, vaccine to P. insidiosum (treatment vaccine)