Parasitology Part 1.txt

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Mawad
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300801
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Parasitology Part 1.txt
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2015-04-14 16:46:55
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vetmed parasitology
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vetmed, parasitology part 1
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  1. What are the 5 major groupings of parasites?
    nematodes, protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, ectoparasites
  2. What are the ectoparasites of interest in veterinary medicine?
    arthropoda, specifically insecta and arachnida
  3. Interaction among organisms in which one organism lives with, in, or on the body of another.
    symbiosis
  4. Symbiosis in which one organism benefit from the association while the host is harmed in some way.
    parasitism
  5. Kind of symbiosis in which one symbiont, the commensal, benefits and the other, the host, is neither helped nor harmed.
    mutualism
  6. Physical acts the host can do to avoid or remove the parasite.
    host environment
  7. Advantages of parasitism for the host. (4)
    outcompete others for a niche, genetic diversity/fitness, premunition/ concomitant immunity, cross-protective immunity
  8. What is the most important disadvantage of parasitism for the host?
    inflammation: acute, subacute, and chronic
  9. What 3 major groupings of parasites are helminths?
    nematodes, cestodes, trematodes
  10. Stage infective to host, no free living stage, no environmental stage, and no other host involved for development.
    direct life-cycle
  11. Another host of vector is required for development; there is a free living stage, or the parasite develops outside of the host to an infective stage.
    indirect life-cycle
  12. Host in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity.
    definitive host
  13. Host that is required for parasite development but does not reach sexual maturity in, asexual.
    intermediate host
  14. Host in which the parasite does not undergo development in, but remains alive and infective.
    paratenic/transport host
  15. Incorrect host, may have infection but can result in dead end for parasite; lacks adaptations.
    aberrant host
  16. Nematodes are __________ or ___________.
    free-living; parasitic
  17. Describe the morphology of a nematode.
    unsegmented, cylindrical
  18. Nematodes have an ______________, unlike cestodes, which do not.
    alimentary canal
  19. The sexes of nematodes are...
    usually separate
  20. Nematodes are aka ____________.
    roundworms
  21. Describe the lifecycle of Ancylostoma spp.
    Eggs passed in feces--> eggs hatch and develop into infective larvae --> larvae are ingested or penetrate skin --> adult worms lay eggs in small intestine --> eggs are passed in feces --> repeat cycle
  22. Ancylostoma are a type of __________.
    nematode
  23. What are the transmission routes of Ancylostoma? (4)
    ingestion of larvae, larval penetration through skin, transplacental, transmammary
  24. Giardia intestinalis and Babesia canis are examples of ____________.
    protozoans
  25. Castodes are aka _____________.
    tapeworms
  26. Describe the morphology of cestodes.
    flat body, no cavity, scolex (head), body has proglottids (segments)
  27. Cestodes have a(n) ___________ life cycle with ____________.
    indirect; intermediate
  28. Echinococcus is a type of ___________.
    cestode
  29. Describe the lifecycle of Echinococcus.
    Eggs are ingested by intermediate host --> tissues of intermediate host are ingested by definitive host --> adult worms mature in small intestine --> posterior segments of adult worms are passed in feces --> eggs are released from segments --> repeat cycle
  30. Trematodes are aka ___________.
    flukes
  31. Describe the morphology of trematodes. (3)
    dorso-ventrally flattened, oral and ventral suckers, have alimentary canal
  32. What is the sexuality of trematodes?
    hermaphroditic
  33. Diptera are...
    flies (arthropoda--> insecta)
  34. What are the 4 life stages of the fly?
    egg--> larvae --> puparium --> adult
  35. Phthirptera are...
    lice (arthropoda--> insecta)
  36. What are the 3 life stages of a louse?
    egg--> nymph --> adult
  37. Siphonaptera are...
    fleas (arhtropoda--> insecta)
  38. Ticks and mites are members of...
    arthropoda--> arachnida
  39. Diplomonadida/ Trichmonadida is an order of ____________; they are __________ of the __(2)__; 2 examples include...
    Protozoa; flagellates;intestine and mucosa; Giardia, Tritrichomonas
  40. Trypanosomatida is an order of ___________; they are __________ transmitted by ______________; 2 examples include...
    Protozoa; haemoflagellates; biting insects; Trypanosoma, Leishmania
  41. Apicomplexa is an order of ___________; they are parasites of _________; they include... (2)
    Protozoa; epithelial cells; coccidia and tissue cyst apicomplex
  42. With Apicomplexa, what type of reproduction takes place?
    sexual and asexual
  43. Piroplasmorida is an order of _________; they infect _________; they reproduce by ________ in a _______ vector; 2 examples include...
    Protozoa; blood cells; sexual reproduction; tick; Babesia, Theileria
  44. Haemosporida is an order of _________; they infect __________; they reproduce by _________ in a _________ vector; 2 examples include...
    Protozoa; sexual reproduction; biting insect; Plasmodium, Haemoproteus
  45. Diplomonadida is _________.
    Giardia
  46. Describe the life cycle of Giardia intestinalis (Giardia lamblia, Giardia duodenalis).
    contamination of water/food/fomites with infective cysts --> ingestion --> cysts mature to trophozoites in host, which multiply and produce more cysts --> cysts and trophozoites passed in stool --> cysts persist in environment, trophozoites die --> repeat cycle
  47. Trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis are adapted for...
    using their sucking discs to attach to the mucous epithelial cells of the upper portion of the small intestine.
  48. 5 ways that Giardia intestinalis causes intestinal malabsorption.
    secretion of proteases by intestinal cells, trophozoites produce lectin, adhere to enterocytes, fat not emulsified/ cannot be absorbed, mechanical obstruction
  49. A & B Giardia assemblages are found in...
    humans
  50. C & D Giardia assemblages are found in...
    dogs
  51. E Giardia assemblages are found in...
    hoofed stock
  52. F Giardia assemblages are found in...
    felines
  53. G Giardia assemblages are found in...
    rats
  54. Giardia is asymptomatic for ________; _____ cysts are needed to initiate infection.
    5-20 days; 10
  55. 2 types of organisms from the Order Trichomonadida.
    Tritrichomonas, Histomonas
  56. Ciliophora is an order of ____________; an example is ____________.
    Protozoa; Balantidium coli
  57. Protozoa with a single nucleus, rodlike axostyle, undulating membrane, 3-5 flagella.
    Trichomonadida
  58. Trichomonadida do not have a ________ stage.
    cyst
  59. Tritrichomonas foetus is a ________ disease of __________.
    venereal; cattle
  60. Describe the pathogenesis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls versus cows.
    • bulls- asymptomatic chronic carriers
    • cows- parasites replicate in vagina, invade uterus, and cause abortion
  61. How do you control Tritrichmonas foetus?
    test and cull infected bulls
  62. Tritrichomonas blagburni causes...
    feline intermittent large bowel diarrhea in young purebred cats or high density housing situations.
  63. Trichomonas gallinae affects the ___________ of __________.
    upper respiratory tract; birds
  64. Transmission of Trichomonas gallinae is...
    from adult crop to offspring through contaminated water or predation of infected birds.
  65. Trichomonas gallinae causes what kinds of lesions? (2)
    necrotic ulceration, caseous lesions adherent to mucosa of oropharynx, crop, and esophagus
  66. Histomonas meleagridis invades the _________ of ____(4)____, where they become ________ and _________ and migrate to the ___________.
    cecal wall; young turkeys, pheasant, quail, chickens (carrier); pleomorphic; amoeboid; liver
  67. Histomonas meleagridis causes... (3)
    hemorrhagic liver, cecal inflammation and ulceration
  68. You can find the trophozoites of Histomonas meleagridis in the... (2)
    cecum or liver.
  69. Transmission of Histomonas melegridis is through ___________, a __________, whereby the _____ may be ingested by an earthworm that is eaten by the definitive host.
    Heterakis gallinae (transport host); cecal worm (nematode); ova
  70. What are the 4 stages of Trypanosoma?
    epimastigote (vector), metacyclic (infective from vector to mammalian host), trypomastigote (mammalian host), amastigote (T. cruzi)
  71. Stage of Trypanosoma in which the undulating membrane and flagellum originate anterior to the nucleus.
    epimastigote (vector)
  72. Infective stage of Trypanosoma, when it goes from the vector to the mammalian host.
    metacyclic
  73. The stage of Trypanosoma in which the undulating membrane and flagellum originates at the posterior end of the parasite.
    trypomastigote (mammalian host)
  74. The stage of Trypanosoma in which the undulating membrane is absent and the flagellum is internal.
    amastigote (T. cruzi)
  75. What are the 2 major groups of Trypanosoma?
    Salivaria (saliva), Stercoraris (feces-T. cruzi)
  76. Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense are distributed throughout _________ by the ________; they cause __________ in _________ and are fatal to __(4)__; ________ native to Africa are carriers.
    Africa; Tsetse fly; nagana; domestic cattle; horses, mules, camels, and dogs; wild ungulates
  77. Describe the lifecycle of Trypanosoma brucei.
    Tsetse fly innoculates metacyclic tryps into the skin --> Tryps enter the lymph and lymph nodes then blood stream --> Tryps divide by binary fission --> trypomastigotes are in the blood --> Tsetse fly takes blood meal --> repeat cycle
  78. The incubation of Trypanosoma brucei is ________; clinical signs include... (8)
    1-4 weeks; fever, anemia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, CNS, pooling of blood, collapse of circulatory system
  79. Trypanosoma equiperdum is __________ transmitted, causing disease called __________; eradicated from U but still monitored.
    sexually transmitted; dourine
  80. During the acute stage of infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum, signs include... (5)
    selling and d/c of genitalia, skin lesions, emaciation, paresis, fever
  81. What are the 2 forms of infection with Leishmaniasis in humans?
    cutaneous/mucocutaneous, visceral
  82. Leishmaniasis infects...
    humans, dogs, cats, horses
  83. How does Leishmaniasis manifest in dogs? (3)
    visceral and cutaneous lesions, alopecia, non-pruritic
  84. How does Leishmaniasis manifest in cats and horses?
    skin lesions
  85. Describe the life cycle of Leishmaniasis.
    sandfly takes blood meal and injects promastigote into skin --> promastigotes phagocytized by macrophages --> romastigotes transform to amastigotes inside macs --> amastigotes multiply in tissues --> sandfly takes blood meal --> repeat cycle
  86. Leishmania promastigotes enter the blood from a ________; they are covered with _______ and _________, which mediate their uptake by __________; the parasite survives because...
    vector-sandfly; GP63; lipphosphoglycan (LPG); macrophages; they survive the highly acidic environment of phagolysosome.
  87. Leishmaniasis causes ___________ dissemination, ________infection, and __________ due to circulating immune complexes.
    systemic; chronic; glomerulonephritis
  88. Entamoeba histolytica exists as __(2)__.
    trophozoites and cysts
  89. Chronic carriers of Entamoeba histolytica shed pathogen through...
    dysentery with sloughing of epithelium and peritonitis
  90. Entamoeba histolytica is present in...
    tropics, poor areas
  91. Describe the lifecycle of Entamoeba histolytica.
    mature cysts ingested --> excystation --> trophozoites form inside host --> trophozoites multiply to create more cysts and trophozoites --> cysts and trophozoites passed in feces --> repeat cycle
  92. For Entamoeba histolytica the _______ is the diagnostic stage and the _______ is the infective/diagnostic stage.
    trophozoite; cyst
  93. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans that is associated with springs, natural warm spas.
    Naegleria
  94. Naegleria has _________ stage; humans are ________.
    free-living; aberrant (dead-end) host
  95. Describe the life cycle of Naegleria.
    cyst --> form trophozoite in environment --> becomes flagellated form --> promitosis to replicate --> amoeba penetrate nasal mucosa of human while in water --> amoeba migrate to brain via olfactory nerve --> disease --> dead end
  96. Balantidium coli is a _______ that is nonpathogenic in _______; it causes __________ in primates, __________ in dogs and horses.
    ciliate; swine; dysentery; large bowel ulceration
  97. Balantidium coli has a _______ lifecycle through ________ of ________; its stages include __(2)__; it reproduces by _________.
    direct; ingestion; cysts; trophozoite; cyst; binary fission

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