What are the ectoparasites of interest in veterinary medicine?
arthropoda, specifically insecta and arachnida
Interaction among organisms in which one organism lives with, in, or on the body of another.
Symbiosis in which one organism benefit from the association while the host is harmed in some way.
Kind of symbiosis in which one symbiont, the commensal, benefits and the other, the host, is neither helped nor harmed.
Physical acts the host can do to avoid or remove the parasite.
Advantages of parasitism for the host. (4)
outcompete others for a niche, genetic diversity/fitness, premunition/ concomitant immunity, cross-protective immunity
What is the most important disadvantage of parasitism for the host?
inflammation: acute, subacute, and chronic
What 3 major groupings of parasites are helminths?
nematodes, cestodes, trematodes
Stage infective to host, no free living stage, no environmental stage, and no other host involved for development.
Another host of vector is required for development; there is a free living stage, or the parasite develops outside of the host to an infective stage.
Host in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity.
Host that is required for parasite development but does not reach sexual maturity in, asexual.
Host in which the parasite does not undergo development in, but remains alive and infective.
Incorrect host, may have infection but can result in dead end for parasite; lacks adaptations.
Nematodes are __________ or ___________.
Describe the morphology of a nematode.
Nematodes have an ______________, unlike cestodes, which do not.
The sexes of nematodes are...
Nematodes are aka ____________.
Describe the lifecycle of Ancylostoma spp.
Eggs passed in feces--> eggs hatch and develop into infective larvae --> larvae are ingested or penetrate skin --> adult worms lay eggs in small intestine --> eggs are passed in feces --> repeat cycle
Ancylostoma are a type of __________.
What are the transmission routes of Ancylostoma? (4)
ingestion of larvae, larval penetration through skin, transplacental, transmammary
Giardia intestinalis and Babesia canis are examples of ____________.
Castodes are aka _____________.
Describe the morphology of cestodes.
flat body, no cavity, scolex (head), body has proglottids (segments)
Cestodes have a(n) ___________ life cycle with ____________.
Echinococcus is a type of ___________.
Describe the lifecycle of Echinococcus.
Eggs are ingested by intermediate host --> tissues of intermediate host are ingested by definitive host --> adult worms mature in small intestine --> posterior segments of adult worms are passed in feces --> eggs are released from segments --> repeat cycle
Trematodes are aka ___________.
Describe the morphology of trematodes. (3)
dorso-ventrally flattened, oral and ventral suckers, have alimentary canal
What is the sexuality of trematodes?
flies (arthropoda--> insecta)
What are the 4 life stages of the fly?
egg--> larvae --> puparium --> adult
lice (arthropoda--> insecta)
What are the 3 life stages of a louse?
egg--> nymph --> adult
fleas (arhtropoda--> insecta)
Ticks and mites are members of...
Diplomonadida/ Trichmonadida is an order of ____________; they are __________ of the __(2)__; 2 examples include...
Protozoa; flagellates;intestine and mucosa; Giardia, Tritrichomonas
Trypanosomatida is an order of ___________; they are __________ transmitted by ______________; 2 examples include...
Apicomplexa is an order of ___________; they are parasites of _________; they include... (2)
Protozoa; epithelial cells; coccidia and tissue cyst apicomplex
With Apicomplexa, what type of reproduction takes place?
sexual and asexual
Piroplasmorida is an order of _________; they infect _________; they reproduce by ________ in a _______ vector; 2 examples include...
Protozoa; blood cells; sexual reproduction; tick; Babesia, Theileria
Haemosporida is an order of _________; they infect __________; they reproduce by _________ in a _________ vector; 2 examples include...
Protozoa; sexual reproduction; biting insect; Plasmodium, Haemoproteus
Diplomonadida is _________.
Describe the life cycle of Giardia intestinalis (Giardia lamblia, Giardia duodenalis).
contamination of water/food/fomites with infective cysts --> ingestion --> cysts mature to trophozoites in host, which multiply and produce more cysts --> cysts and trophozoites passed in stool --> cysts persist in environment, trophozoites die --> repeat cycle
Trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis are adapted for...
using their sucking discs to attach to the mucous epithelial cells of the upper portion of the small intestine.
5 ways that Giardia intestinalis causes intestinal malabsorption.
secretion of proteases by intestinal cells, trophozoites produce lectin, adhere to enterocytes, fat not emulsified/ cannot be absorbed, mechanical obstruction
A & B Giardia assemblages are found in...
C & D Giardia assemblages are found in...
E Giardia assemblages are found in...
F Giardia assemblages are found in...
G Giardia assemblages are found in...
Giardia is asymptomatic for ________; _____ cysts are needed to initiate infection.
5-20 days; 10
2 types of organisms from the Order Trichomonadida.
Ciliophora is an order of ____________; an example is ____________.
Protozoa; Balantidium coli
Protozoa with a single nucleus, rodlike axostyle, undulating membrane, 3-5 flagella.
Trichomonadida do not have a ________ stage.
Tritrichomonas foetus is a ________ disease of __________.
Describe the pathogenesis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls versus cows.
bulls- asymptomatic chronic carriers
cows- parasites replicate in vagina, invade uterus, and cause abortion
How do you control Tritrichmonas foetus?
test and cull infected bulls
Tritrichomonas blagburni causes...
feline intermittent large bowel diarrhea in young purebred cats or high density housing situations.
Trichomonas gallinae affects the ___________ of __________.
upper respiratory tract; birds
Transmission of Trichomonas gallinae is...
from adult crop to offspring through contaminated water or predation of infected birds.
Trichomonas gallinae causes what kinds of lesions? (2)
necrotic ulceration, caseous lesions adherent to mucosa of oropharynx, crop, and esophagus
Histomonas meleagridis invades the _________ of ____(4)____, where they become ________ and _________ and migrate to the ___________.
Tsetse fly innoculates metacyclic tryps into the skin --> Tryps enter the lymph and lymph nodes then blood stream --> Tryps divide by binary fission --> trypomastigotes are in the blood --> Tsetse fly takes blood meal --> repeat cycle
The incubation of Trypanosoma brucei is ________; clinical signs include... (8)
1-4 weeks; fever, anemia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, CNS, pooling of blood, collapse of circulatory system
Trypanosoma equiperdum is __________ transmitted, causing disease called __________; eradicated from U but still monitored.
sexually transmitted; dourine
During the acute stage of infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum, signs include... (5)
selling and d/c of genitalia, skin lesions, emaciation, paresis, fever
What are the 2 forms of infection with Leishmaniasis in humans?
humans, dogs, cats, horses
How does Leishmaniasis manifest in dogs? (3)
visceral and cutaneous lesions, alopecia, non-pruritic
How does Leishmaniasis manifest in cats and horses?
Describe the life cycle of Leishmaniasis.
sandfly takes blood meal and injects promastigote into skin --> promastigotes phagocytized by macrophages --> romastigotes transform to amastigotes inside macs --> amastigotes multiply in tissues --> sandfly takes blood meal --> repeat cycle
Leishmania promastigotes enter the blood from a ________; they are covered with _______ and _________, which mediate their uptake by __________; the parasite survives because...
vector-sandfly; GP63; lipphosphoglycan (LPG); macrophages; they survive the highly acidic environment of phagolysosome.
Leishmaniasis causes ___________ dissemination, ________infection, and __________ due to circulating immune complexes.
systemic; chronic; glomerulonephritis
Entamoeba histolytica exists as __(2)__.
trophozoites and cysts
Chronic carriers of Entamoeba histolytica shed pathogen through...
dysentery with sloughing of epithelium and peritonitis
Entamoeba histolytica is present in...
tropics, poor areas
Describe the lifecycle of Entamoeba histolytica.
mature cysts ingested --> excystation --> trophozoites form inside host --> trophozoites multiply to create more cysts and trophozoites --> cysts and trophozoites passed in feces --> repeat cycle
For Entamoeba histolytica the _______ is the diagnostic stage and the _______ is the infective/diagnostic stage.
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans that is associated with springs, natural warm spas.
Naegleria has _________ stage; humans are ________.
free-living; aberrant (dead-end) host
Describe the life cycle of Naegleria.
cyst --> form trophozoite in environment --> becomes flagellated form --> promitosis to replicate --> amoeba penetrate nasal mucosa of human while in water --> amoeba migrate to brain via olfactory nerve --> disease --> dead end
Balantidium coli is a _______ that is nonpathogenic in _______; it causes __________ in primates, __________ in dogs and horses.
ciliate; swine; dysentery; large bowel ulceration
Balantidium coli has a _______ lifecycle through ________ of ________; its stages include __(2)__; it reproduces by _________.