Patho- Inflammation 1.txt

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Mawad
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300802
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Patho- Inflammation 1.txt
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2015-04-14 16:47:23
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vetmed inflammation pathology
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vetmed, inflammation part 1
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  1. Inflammation is magnified in tissues with _____________, such as... (3)
    high microvascular blood flow; brain, heart, lung
  2. Inflammatory reactions are oriented around ________ and the _____________.
    blood vessels; adjacent mesenchymal tissues
  3. Inflammation must occur in ____________.
    living tissues
  4. 5 hallmarks of inflammation.
    redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), heat (calore), pain (dolore), loss of function (functio laesa)
  5. 5 etiologies of inflammation.
    immunologic responses, living agents, mechanical damage, oncotic necrosis, xenobiotic chemicals
  6. Morphologic features of inflammation. (6)
    damage tissues (necrosis, sometimes degeneration), inflammatory cells, inciting cause, altered regional circulation (hyperemia), fluid exudate, proliferation of parenchyma and stroma
  7. Inflammation is minimal in ____________.
    poorly vascularized tissues
  8. Local vascular responses are modulated by... (2)
    direct endothelial damage, release of vascular mediators from inflammatory cells
  9. The most critical initiating event of local vascular responses to inflammation.
    direct endothelial damage
  10. The activation target of many inflammatory mediators are the _____________ in _______________.
    contractile elements; endothelia and vascular smooth muscle cells
  11. ___________ is the most important factor for acute inflammations.
    Fluid exudation
  12. _____________ is the most important factor for chronic inflammations.
    Cell proliferation
  13. Peracute inflammation is ________, and there are ____________ changes.
    1-24 hours; fluid and vascular
  14. Acute inflammation is _________, and there are ______________ changes.
    2-5 days; vascular, fluid, and cell (PMNs)
  15. Subacute is ___________, and there are ______________ changes.
    7-14 days; predominantly lymphocytes and macs, beginning proliferation of angioblasts and fibroblasts
  16. Chronic is _________, and there are _______________ changes.
    >14 days; cell infiltrate (macs, lymphs, plasma cells), proliferation of fibroblasts, angioblasts, parenchyma is well advanced, tissue is disfigured
  17. With chronic active inflammation, there is _____________ with an ongoing _______________.
    chronic inflammation; acute response (PMNs)
  18. Exudative inflammation is defined by its ____________.
    vascular response
  19. 5 types of exudative inflammation.
    serous, fibrinous, suppurative, hemorrhagic, catarrhal
  20. Proliferative inflammation is a _____________ reaction, causing ____________.
    granulomatous; granulation tissue
  21. 3 presentations of acute mixed inflammation.
    serofibrinous, fibrinopurulent, mucopurulent
  22. 2 presentations of mixed acute and chronic inflammation.
    chronic suppurative, pyogranulomatous
  23. A surface inflammatory process that penetrates into the epithelial layer and has a pale lesion bed that does not bleed.
    erosive
  24. A surface inflammatory process that penetrates through the epithelial layer and has a red and raw wound.
    ulcerative
  25. A process where necrosis is a major part of the process.
    necrotizing
  26. Inflammation is essential for ______________, but it is detrimental in that it can ________________.
    suppression of microbes; cause excessive host tissue destruction
  27. Type of acute inflammation in which the exudate includes substantial mucus from inflamed epithelia.
    catarrhal
  28. Type of acute inflammation in which the exudate includes many PMNs.
    suppurative (purulent)
  29. Type of subacute inflammation in which exudate includes mainly lymphocytes.
    nonsuppurative
  30. Type of subacute inflammation in which exudate includes lymphocytes and locally made plasma cells.
    lymphoplasmacytic
  31. 4 types of chronic inflammation.
    nonsuppurative, lymphoplasmacytic, granulomatous, granulation tissue
  32. Type of chronic active inflammation in which exudate includes macrophages and PMNs.
    pyogranulomatous
  33. Neutrophils have a ___________ nucleus in mature cells; immature cells are __________; the cytoplasm is ___(2)___.
    segmented; bands; pale pink with granules
  34. ____________ are the first responders of the innate immune system, especially against ___________.
    Neutrophils; bacteria
  35. What are the 2 distinct pools of neutrophils?
    circulating, marginating
  36. What are the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils? (2)
    phagocytosis, tissue digestion
  37. Neutrophil function is reduced in ___________ environments.
    acidic (pH< 6.8)
  38. Function of neutrophils is controlled by __________ and _________.
    B cells (Ab); T cells (cytokines)
  39. _______________ is the predominant inflammatory cell component in purulent and suppurative inflammations.
    Neutrophilic leukocytosis
  40. Monocytes are the __________ form.
    circulating
  41. Inactive monocyte descendants in tissue interstitial spaces; indistinguishable from fibroblasts.
    histiocytes
  42. Dendritic cells are __________ that are _____________.
    macrophages; professional APCs
  43. _____________ are the main phagocytic form in tissues.
    Macrophages
  44. A specialized form of macrophage in wounds to facilitate debris removal and wound repair.
    fibrocyte
  45. The nucleus of monocytes/macs is ___(2)___; the cytoplasm is _________ with __(2)__.
    large and oval; pink; granules and vacuoles
  46. The cytoplasmic borders of hitsiocytes are __________.
    often indistinct
  47. What type of monocyte/mac may fuse to form multinucleated giant cells?
    epithelioid (activated) macrophages
  48. ____________ are the main late responders of the innate immune system.
    Macrophages
  49. Macrophages bridge the gap b/w the initial __________ and the rise of the _________.
    neutrophil flood; adaptive IR
  50. Macrophages are prominent players in ____________ reactions.
    granulomatous
  51. What are the antimicrobial functions of monocytes/macrophages? (2)
    phagocytosis, tissue degradation
  52. Macs are courses of many ______(2)______.
    cytokines and growth factors
  53. Macrophages can remain active in ___________ environments, which are predominant in chronic inflammatory reactions.
    acidic
  54. ____________ are the primary drivers of the acquired immune response.
    Lymphocytes
  55. Type of lymphocyte that is an effector that tends to stay at the site of differentiation.
    B cells
  56. Type of lymphocyte that control immune responses.
    T cells
  57. The nucleus of lymphocytes is ___(4)___; they cytoplasm is __(2)__.
    round, monomorphic, basophilic, and eccentric; scant, basophilic
  58. Lymphocytes dominate in _____________ lesions.
    nonsuppurative inflammatory
  59. Lymphocytes orient to the _________ of __________ inflammatory lesions.
    periphery; more chronic
  60. Phenomenon describing the the fact that lymphocytes may get no further than the vascular adventitial spaces due to their limited motility.
    perivascular cuffing
  61. What are the main functions of lymphocytes? (3)
    recognize, response, and remember non-self Ag
  62. What are the common sites of nonsuppurative inflammation? (7)
    cutaneous and mucosal surfaces, CNS, autoimmune disease, neoplasms, transplants, viral infections
  63. Mediate cytotoxic responses directed against intracellular pathogens.
    Th1
  64. Mediate antibody production against extracellular pathogens and bacterial toxins.
    Th2
  65. Mediate anti-microbial immunity at epithelial/mucosal surfaces.
    Th17
  66. Cytotoxic innate immune cell that can kills pathogens without prior immune exposure and do no require MHC.
    NK cells
  67. Major effectors in anaphylactic reactions, hypersensitivity disease, and metazoan parasite infections.
    eosinophils
  68. Eosinophils secrete ___________ that suppress _____________.
    prostaglandins; mast cell degranulation
  69. Granules of eosinophils are rich in... (3)
    major basic protein, histiminase, and peroxidase/phospholipase that antagonize mast cell products
  70. Mast cells are found in ______________; they play a direct role in regulation of _____________; they play an indirect role in control of ___________; they also produce _______ to stimulate a Th2 response.
    connective tissues; regional blood flow; secretions from intestine and pulmonary tract; IL-4
  71. Endothelia express _________ in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines.
    adhesins
  72. The endothelial basement membrane provides a hold for _____________ and a substrate for launching the ______________.
    transmigrating inflammatory cells; coagulation cascade
  73. The endothelium is an important source of _________ for the clotting cascade and ___________ to oppose pro-coagulant platelets.
    Factor VIII; prostaglandins
  74. Fibroblasts can live in environments with ______________.
    low oxygen tension
  75. Sheets of plump fibroblasts in association with new capillaries and scattered inflammatory cells.
    granulation tissue
  76. Dense connective tissue with few cells and essentially no inflammation; end stage.
    fibrosis (cicatrix)
  77. Fibroblasts can act a ___________ to produce adipocytes, osteoblasts, and smooth muscle cells (metaplasia).
    pluripotent stem cells
  78. Soluble substances that interact with cell receptors to induce biological responses.
    mediators
  79. What are the 3 general functions of mediators?
    vasoactive, chemotactic, or opsonizing agents
  80. Soluble substances that interact with cell receptors to induce biological responses.
    cytokines
  81. The predominant roles of cytokines are __________, including... (3)
    anabolic; differentiation, growth, proliferation
  82. Two functions of cytokines.
    pro-inflammatory (regulate acute inflammation), proliferative (prominent in chronic inflammation and repair)
  83. Soluble heparin-binding polypeptides from inflammatory cells and parenchymal cells that attract and sometimes also activate leukocytes.
    chemokines
  84. -C-X-C are ______ family chemokines that are chemotactic for _______.
    alpha; PMNs
  85. -X-C-C-X are _______ family chemokines that are chemotactic for ____(3)____.
    beta; monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
  86. -C- are ________ family chemokines that are chemotactic for ____(2)____.
    gamma; lymphocytes and NK cells
  87. ___________ but not __________ facilitate cell proliferation and differentiation, tend to be pre-formed, and act on both differentiated and stem cell populations.
    Cytokines; mediators
  88. Major classes of cytokines involved in chronic inflammation. (5)
    CSF, IFN, IL, TGF, TNF

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