Pathology- Inflammation 2.txt

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Pathology- Inflammation 2.txt
2015-04-14 16:48:00
vetmed pathology inflammation

vetmed, inflammation part 2
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  1. Acute inflammatory reactions are dominated by ________________ responses.
    rapid-onset vascular
  2. Acute inflammation leads to transient ____________ via autonomic neural stimulation, leading to local _________________; there is prolonged ____________ due to transient ____________ and the release of __________, leading to __________ and ________.
    vasoconstrition; arteriolar smooth muscle contraction; vasodilation; neurogenic paralysis; vasoactive mediators; increased capillary volume; decreased blood pressure
  3. With acute inflammation, __________ causes rubor (redness).
    active congestion (hyperemia)
  4. 4 possible outcomes of acute inflammation.
    resolution, repair by fibrosis, sequestration (abscess formation), and progression to chronic inflammation
  5. The dominant acute inflammatory response is __________.
  6. With exudation due to acute inflammation, there is increased ___________ with loss of... (in order-4)
    vessel permeability; fluids; electrolytes, proteins, and cells
  7. [Acute inflammation] With exudation, loss of ____________ and ____________ increase blood viscosity, slowing flow and increasing ____________, which subsequently increases fluid outflow from the vasculature.
    fluids; electrolytes; interstitial colloid osmotic pressure
  8. [Acute inflammation] With exudation, there is increased ____________, causing swelling associated with inflammation.
    interstitial volume
  9. [Acute inflammation] With exudation there is upregulated expression of _____________ with increased leukocyte trafficking.
    endothelial adhesins
  10. [Acute inflammation] With exudation, a _______________ leads to acidification of tissue pH.
    local tissue hypoxia
  11. [Acute inflammation] With exudation, local __________ due to hypoxia further increased the interstitial colloid pressure.
  12. [Acute inflammation] The composition of exudate fluids is controlled by... (3)
    vascular changes (flow, damage, hydrostatic pressure), extravascular conditions (colloid osmotic pressure), type of tissue undergoing inflammation
  13. [Acute inflammation] The composition of exudate proteins is controlled by...
  14. [Acute inflammation] With exudation, fibrin restricts ____________, provides a scaffold for __________, holds the ____________, and provides a scaffold for ___(2)___ migration.
    diffusion of irritant; phagocyte movement; edge of wound together; angioblast and fibroblast migration
  15. [Acute inflammation] The composition of exudate leukocytes in the early _________ phase is predominantly _________; in the late __________ phase, it's predominantly ___________ and ___________.
    exudative; PMNs; proliferative; lymphs/macs; fibroblasts/parenchymal cells
  16. [Acute inflammation] Exudate contains cells when...
    bacterial infections, neoplasia, or trauma incite inflammation.
  17. [Acute inflammation] Leukocytes enter exudate because they express ____________ which drive the ___________ process.
    selectins; extravasation
  18. [Acute inflammation] What are the 4 steps of the extravasation process?
    initial contact, rolling adherence, firm adherence, directed chemotaxis
  19. [Acute inflammation] How does the endothelium dictate cells entering exudate? (2)
    retraction of foot processes to open pores; expression adhesins (selectin receptors)
  20. [Acute inflammation] The brain does not express ____________ and therefore has little inflammation.
    intercellular adhesion molecules
  21. [Acute inflammation] Serous inflammation is characterized by _________ that is low in _________; it occurs in response to a ___________ or the ___________.
    watery fluid; protein; mild irritant; initial phase of a reaction
  22. [Acute inflammation] Intraepithelial vesicles and effusions are examples of ____________.
    serous inflammation
  23. [Acute inflammation] Serous inflammation is associated with __________.
  24. [Acute inflammation] Microscopically, serous inflammation is characterized by... (4)
    increased tissue space, few PMNs, prominent capillaries, degeneration/necrosis of parenchyma
  25. [Acute inflammation] Fibrinous inflammation is characterized by...
    entrance of abundant fibrinogen from the blood and precipitating of plasma proteins within masses of insoluble fibrin.
  26. [Acute inflammation] Fibrinous inflammation is designed to prevent ____________, immobilize _________, and aid ____________
    excessive blood loss; irritants; leukocyte migration
  27. [Acute inflammation] Fibrinous inflammation results from a _____________ irritant with _____________.
    severe, vascular-oriented; massive endothelial damage
  28. [Acute inflammation] Fibrinous inflammation often affects _________; it may cause ____________ as a systemic complication; there is no _________ component.
    serosal surfaces; vascular hypotension; fibrous
  29. [Acute inflammation] Grossly, fibrinous inflammation causes... (3)
    fibrillar plaques, croupous (pseudomembranes), diphtheric (fibronecrotic) mucosa
  30. Exudate that easily peels away from the underlying intact surface.
    croupous (pseudomembranes)
  31. Fibrin-rich exudate that peels away with difficulty, leaving a raw mucosa beneath.
    diphtheric (fibronecrotic)
  32. [Acute inflammation] Microscopically, fibrinous inflammation has a large amount of _____________, marked __________, and ____________ degeneration/necrosis.
    proteins (eosinophilic threads); hyperemia/hemorrhage; endothelial
  33. [Acute inflammation] A surface oriented acute inflammation characterized by abundant mucus in the exudate.
    Catarrhal (mucoid) inflammation
  34. [Acute inflammation] Catarrhal inflammation results from a _________ irritant that overstimulates _________ from __________.
    mild; mucus secretion; goblet cells
  35. [Acute inflammation] Microscopically, catarrhal inflammation has a large amount of ___________ that stains red with PAS; there is superficial _________ and there may be ___________ present.
    mucus; necrosis; neutrophils (mucopurulent)
  36. [Acute inflammation] 2 synonyms for suppurative inflammation.
    purulent, neutrophilic
  37. [Acute inflammation] Suppurative inflammation is characterized by accumulation of ___________ mixed with ____________; acts as a constant source of _________ and _________ to enter blood and lymph.
    neutrophils; tissue debris; toxic products; pyogenic bacteria
  38. [Acute inflammation] What is the etiology of suppurative inflammation?
    pyogenic bacteria, such as staph and strep
  39. Focal, space-occupying chronic suppurative inflammation in a tissue; has a thick fibrous capsule.
  40. Diffuse suppurative inflammation spreading through the subcutis or other loose connective tissue; rapidly progresses so that there is minimal necrosis.
  41. Pus in a natural body cavity.
  42. Tract connecting a mucus membrane to a surface.
  43. A small abscess involving a hair follicle or sebaceous gland.
    furuncle (boil)
  44. A passage discharging pus on an organ or body surface.
    sinus tract
  45. An acute abscess has...
    a core of dead neutrophils surrounded by a rim of live neutrophils.
  46. A subacute abscess has...
    a necrotic eosinophilic core surrounded by concentric rings of live and plump fibroblasts.
  47. A chronic abscess has...
    a necrotic center, PMNs, thick and dense capsule.
  48. With cellulitis, there are numerous ____________ free in the connective tissue.
  49. Chronic inflammatory reactions are dominated by ____________, ___________ to ____________ tissue damage.
    gradual onset; proliferative cellular response; serious
  50. [Chronic Inflammation] The major inflammatory cells are... (2)
    macrophages and lymphocytes
  51. [Chronic Inflammation] The major stromal cells are... (2)
    fibroblasts and angioblasts
  52. [Chronic Inflammation] What are the 3 major cell types?
    inflammatory cells, stromal cells, parenchymal cells
  53. [Chronic Inflammation] Grossly, the dense tissue has ____________ with ___________, and the loose connective tissue has _____________ with _____________.
    nodules; fibroplasia; marked spreading; fluid exudation
  54. [Chronic Inflammation] Microscopically within dense tissues, there are __________ nodules containing numerous __________ (called an _________) or a ___________ core (called a __________) surrounding by __(3)__.
    laminated; PMNs; abscess; necrotic; granuloma; macrophages, lymphocytes, and sometimes a fibrous capsule
  55. [Chronic Inflammation] Chronic inflammatory processes are caused by any ______________.
    persistent source of antigen
  56. [Chronic Inflammation] What is the outcome of chronic inflammation?
    localized or progressive tissue destruction
  57. [Chronic Inflammation] 2 synonyms for non-suppurative inflammation.
    lymphocytic, lymphoplasmacytic
  58. [Chronic Inflammation] Non-suppurative inflammation is inflammation in which ________ and _________ dominate in the exudate.
    lymphocytes; plasma cells
  59. [Chronic Inflammation] Non-suppurative inflammation is always __________ or ___________ onset.
    subacute; chronic
  60. [Chronic Inflammation] The morphologic hallmark feature of non-suppurative inflammation is...
    numerous lymphocytes, including organized foci of cells (lymphofollicular)
  61. [Chronic Inflammation] 4 etiologies of chronic inflammation.
    tissue grafts, immune-mediated disease, neoplasms, viral infections
  62. [Chronic Inflammation] Granulomatous inflammation is aka _____________.
    histiocytic (if only macrophages)
  63. A chronic proliferative inflammation dominated by activated macrophages.
    Granulomatous inflammation
  64. [Chronic Inflammation] With granulomatous inflammation, there is increased _____________ and ___________ of epithelioid cells.
    metabolic activity; phagocytic ability
  65. [Chronic Inflammation] Granulomas are designed to _______________ from ______________; they are caused by ____________.
    segregate unconquerable agents; body tissues; persistent irritants
  66. [Chronic Inflammation] Grossly, granulomatous inflammation can be of _________ or ________ type.
    focal; diffuse
  67. [Chronic Inflammation] Grossly, focal granulomatous inflammation can be simple or complex; complex focal inflammation means that the __________ differs from the _________;the complex type can be... (3)
    core; rim; caseous (core of caseous material), eosinophilic (core of eosinophils), or suppurative/pyogranulomatous (core of PMNs)
  68. [Chronic Inflammation] The _______________ is the predominant morphologic feature of pyogranulomatous inflammation.
    chronicity of the lesion
  69. [Chronic Inflammation] Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation has infiltrates of ___________, sometimes formation of ___________ and is encompassed by a ______________.
    macrophages; syncsycial macrophages; fibrous capsule
  70. A chronic inflammation characterized by proliferation of fibrocytes, fibroblasts, and angioblasts to form excess immature fibrous connective tissue.
    granulation tissue/ fibrosis
  71. [Chronic Inflammation] With histiocytic inflammation, ____________ is the early lesion, and __________ evolves over time.
    granulation tissue; fibrosis
  72. [Chronic Inflammation] In horses, ______________ is a stereotypic response to injuries on the lower extremities.
    exuberant granulation tissue ("proud flesh")
  73. [Chronic Inflammation] Granulation tissue is not pain because...
    nerve ending regenerate last during the repair process.
  74. [Chronic Inflammation] Granulation tissue can be termed fibrous inflammation if...
    the lesion still includes ongoing inflammation.
  75. [Chronic Inflammation] What is the only way tissue without post-natal proliferative ability can heal inflammatory lesions?
    granulation tissue
  76. [Chronic Inflammation] Grossly, granulation tissue is... (3)
    red, edematous, bleeds easily.
  77. [Chronic Inflammation] Grossly, fibrosis is... (4)
    firm, pale, glistening, inelastic
  78. [Chronic Inflammation] 2 types of fibrosis.
    adhesions, keloids
  79. Sheets of fibrosis connecting the walls of internal cavities.
  80. An exuberant scar due to excessive fibroblast hypertrophy.
  81. [Chronic Inflammation] Microscopically, granulation tissue has _______________ arranged ___________ to the wound surface, and _____________ arranged ___________ to the wound surface.
    immature fibroblasts; parallel; immature vessels; perpendicular
  82. [Chronic Inflammation] Microscopically, fibrosis has ________ of ____________.
    avascular bands; dense fibrous connective tissue