EMG cannot distinguish __________ from ___________; _________ is required to make a specific diagnosis.
nerve dz; muscle dz; biopsy
What are the 2 types of polymyositis, and in what species are they most common?
autoimmune- dogs, infectious- cats
With polymyositis, there is ___________ inflammation that is primarily ___________.
With infectious polymyositis, what 2 etiologic agents are most common?
Immune-mediated polymyositis is ___________ inflammation of multiple muscle groups; it is diagnosed by...
idiopathic; muscle biopsy and ruling out infectious causes.
Autoimmune polymyositis affecting laryngeal mm may present with ______________; affecting laryngeal and pharyngeal mm may present with ___________; with esophageal involvement, may present with ___________.
increased upper airway sounds;change to the tone of bark; passive vomiting
How do you treat immune-mediated polymyositis?
Masticatory myositis is a(n)____________ inflammatory condition of the muscles innervated by the ______________.
autoimmune; mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
The onset of masticatory myositis is relatively ___________, and it usually presents as ____________.
acute; inability to open the jaw
Masticatory myositis involves atrophy of... (3)
masseter, digastricus, and temporalis mm.
Describe the pathogenesis of masticatory myositis.
autoimmune attack on 2M muscle fibers, which are unique to the muscles of mastication.
Acutely, masticatory myositis involves __________ muscles; chronically, there is _____________.
swollen, painful; marked atrophy and fibrosis
How do you diagnose masticatory myositis? (2)
serum 2M antibody titer, temporalis muscle biopsy
How do you treat masticatory myositis? (2)
immunosuppressive prednisone, supportive care
Steroid myopathy can result from ____________ or ___________ and presents as _____________.