Endocrine Physiology

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Endocrine Physiology
2015-04-15 12:22:48
Endocrine Physiology

Vet Med - Module 12
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  1. What type of glands are ductless: endocrine or exocrine?
  2. What are the three types of endocrine glands?
    • Primary purpose endocrine glands e.g. pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, adrenal
    • Endocrine combined with other functions e.g. pancreas, testis, ovary, placenta
    • Serve a secondary endocrine function eg kidney, liver, thymus, heart, GI tract, fat
  3. Give examples of the following types of hormones a) proteins b) peptide c) amines d) steroids
    • a) GH, ACTH, insulin
    • b) oxytocin, vasopressin
    • c) dopamine, melatonin, adrenaline
    • d) oestradiol, cortisol, aldosterone
  4. What are the three ways hormone release is regulated?
    Hormonal, neural and humoral
  5. What can affect the effectiveness of steroid and thyroid hormones?
    Binding proteins - these hormones must be free to have an action
  6. What type of hormone is GH?
    Protien hormone
  7. Where is GH produced and released from?
    The pituitary gland
  8. What is the target are for GH?
    It targets all areas of the body
  9. How does GH promote the growth of tissues?
    It increases cell size, promotes mitosis and differentiation of certain cell types
  10. How does GH promote growth of the skeleton?
    • Increased protein deposition by chondrocytic and osteogenic cells
    • Increased reproduction of these cells
    • Conversion of chondrocytes to osteogenic cells
    • Stimulation of osteoblasts
  11. What other metabolic effects does GH have?
    • Increased protein synthesis
    • Increased metabolism of fatty acids
    • Decrease rate of glucose utilisation 'insulin resistance'
  12. True or false: the pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
  13. What are the endocrine areas of the pancreas called?
    Islets of Langerhans
  14. What type of cells produce a) insulin b) glucagon?
    • a) beta cells¬†
    • b) alpha cells
  15. What is the action of a) insulin b) glucagon?
    • a) lowers blood glucose
    • b) raises blood glucose
  16. What stimulates insulin secretion?
    Hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose)
  17. What effects does the a) ANS b) parasympathetic NS have on insulin release?
    • a) decreases
    • b) increases
  18. What other factors a) increase b) decrease insulin release?
    • a) Amino acids, fatty acids, GH, glucagon and certain gastrointestinal hormones
    • b) somatostatin
  19. What stimulates glucagon secretion?
    Hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose)
  20. What other factors a) increase b) decrease glucagon release?
    • a) Amino acids and exercise
    • b) Somatostatin
  21. The body regulates energy stores at the level of the ...?
  22. What are the two areas of the hypothalamus involved in energy storage regulation?
    Appetite centre and satiety centre
  23. What type of tissue secretes leptin?
    Adipose tissue
  24. Describe what happens to animals that are unable to secrete leptin
    • They become obese within weeks of birth
    • Overeat
    • Have a low BMR and body temperature
    • Are physically inactive
  25. True or false: treatment with exogenous leptin can correct all the abnormalities in a leptin deficient animal?
  26. What type of hormone is ghrelin?
    Protein hormone
  27. What are the two major actions of ghrelin?
    • Regulation of energy balance
    • Stimulation of GH secretion
  28. How does ghrelin regulate energy balance?
    Stimulates hunger, suppresses fat utilisation in adipose tissue, stimulates gastric emptying and has positive effects on CV function
  29. When are concentrations of ghrelin a) lowest b) highest?
    • a) after a meal
    • b) in the fasting just prior to the next meal
  30. What a) suppresses b) augments ghrelin release?
    • a) Feeding, hyperglycaemia, oxyntomodulin and obesity¬†
    • b) Fasting, hypoglycaemia and low leptin
  31. What is PYY 3-36?
    A peptide
  32. When is PYY released from the GI tract?
    After a meal
  33. When would PYY be released the most, after eating a) fats b) carbohydrates c) proteins?
    a) fats - the higher the calorie content the more PYY is released
  34. What are the local actions of PYY?
    Inhibits gastric acid production, exocrine secretions from the pancreas, GI secretions and GI motility
  35. What are the central actions of PYY?
    It crosses the BBB, inhibits food intake and ultimately weight gain via the hypothalamus