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What is motivation?
- To be moved into cognition, emotion and action (Schopenhauer, 1841)
- A response to the perception of positive or negative incentives
- Incentive = Evaluation = Action
What are the internal determinants of motivation?
- Human nature such as the evolutionary motivations to survive and reproduce
- Life experiences
- Personality differences (desire to be liked etc)
- Psychological states
- Physiological states (hunger, fear etc)
- Personal history
- These determine the incentive value stimuli (what we want: e.g. food, sex)
What are the external determinants of motivation?
- Factors in the environment that affect motivations
- These help to determine how much we want these things, and the psychological force with which we value them in our minds (Lewin, 1936)
- I.e having less time before an exam will make you more motivated to work in order to do well
What are intrinsic motivators?
- The self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one's capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge (Deci & Ryan, 2000)
- This is motivated by how much we enjoy the task itself
- Makes you more likely to engage in a task willingly
- Factors such as curiosity, love, mastery and belonging are major intrinsic motivators
What are extrinsic motivators?
- Motivation to achieve a desired outcome on a task that are dependent entirely on external factors
- E.g getting money for doing well on a test
What is the undermining effect?
- Tangible rewards that depend on performance and completion undermine the intrinsic motivation to do this task without reward
- Also decreased the subject interest in the task
- Deci et al (1971) p's were paid on the first and second tasks but not the third or paid on none at all
- Given breaks between puzzle tasks, and the time spend doing it in their own time significantly decreased when the monetary incentive was removed, but not when it was never present
What is the cognitive evaluation theory?
- Deci & Ryan (1975)
- The impact of a reward on motivation is dependent on how that affects our perceived competence
- When we think we are just doing something for the reward it decreases our intrinsic motivation to do it
- When we think the reward is only indicative of our competence in the task our intrinsic motivation is increased (e.g. do well and you can have money vs you're good at this subject, have some money)
How do different reward types affect motivation?
- Unexpected rewards do nothing
- Completion contingent makes you less intrinsically motivated
- Performance contingent rewards depend on the interpersonal context (do the setting or the person giving the reward appear to be controlling?)
What is the symbolic cue value?
- The meaning we assign to rewards
- This is affected by social norms, if a reward appears to come only because it is socially expected to (a tip for a bellboy), it will have little informational value and so will not increase feelings of control and competence (increasing intrinsic motivation)
Does praise increase intrinsic motivation
- Mostly, however:
- The informational aspect of a verbal reward must be salient
- E.g 'Your essay writing technique is excellent'
- The feedback must not seem controlling
- E.g 'Your performance makes me proud, you are doing as well as you should'
- Praise is damaging as it puts us under pressure to continue to be praiseworthy- Farson (1963)
How can praise hinder performance on certain tasks?
- Kamins & Dweck (1999)
- Children role-played successfully completing a task and where given either person ('I'm very proud of you'), Outcome ('That's the right way to do it') or process praise ('You must have tried really hard, you found a good way to do it')
- They then partook in a subsequent task involving a setback
- Self assessments showed significantly higher helpless responses including self blame for person praise than for process praise
Does personal praise help self esteem?
Not really- Mueller & Dweck (1998)
- Children praised for intelligence or effort on a task
- Intelligence condition kids were found to care more about performance goals than learning ones
- After experiencing a failure they displayed:
- Less task persistence
- Less task enjoyment
- More low ability attributions
- Worse task performance
- Children praised for effort described ability to be
- flexible and subject to improvement (not a fixed