Better to prevent waste than to treat/clean up waste after it's been created.
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize incorporation of all materials used in process into final product.
-choose best reactants/reagents to limit side products
Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis
Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substance that possess little/no toxicity to human health and the environment.
-New Synthetic Method
Designing Safer Chemical
Chemicals should not be designed to affect their desired function while minimizing toxicity.
-NaBH4 vs. LiAlH4
Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
Use of auxiliary substances (ex. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous/harmless when used.
Design for Energy Efficient
Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economical impacts and should be minimized. It possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.
Use of Renewable Feedstocks
A raw material of feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable.
-Easily synthesized reagents
Unnecessary derivation (use of blocking groups, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized/avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can regenerate waste.
-Convergent Synthesis vs. Linear Synthesis
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichoimetric reagents
-Example: Organometallics and Phase Transfer Catalyst
Design for Degradation
Chemicals products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down to innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention
Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time in-process monitoring control prior to formation of hazard substance.
Inherently Safer Chemicals for Accident Prevention
Substances and forms of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize potential for chemical accidents including releases, explosions, and fires.