Why do cowboys fight?

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  1. What are control conditions?
    • Northern Americans were mainly farmers, emigrated from England to escape religious persecution 
    • More densely populated and stable societies characterised by a gradual accrual of wealth 
    • People in the south were typically herders of
    • cattle 
    • Wealth must be protected 
    • No real law enforcement 
    • Must protect your own resources by being more aggressive
  2. Do homocide rates differ in the north and the south?
    • Yes, the 10 worst states apart from California (worst being Louisiana) are in the south and the 10 best (best being Maine) are in the north 
    • Equal amount of felony related arguments in the north and south but twice as many argument killings in the south
  3. How can we operationalise honour?
    • Questionnaires, 'would you punch a drunkard if he bumped into your wife?', violence in response to bullying and theft is more popular in the south 
    • Car dealership study- honour murder causing prison or prison due to theft. Significantly more likely to get positive application (number of nice words) for the honour murderer
  4. What are correlational studies?
    • Used to look for relationships between variables.
    • There are three possible results of a correlational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation.
    • The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00.
    • Positive: one increases and so does the other 
    • Negative: one increases and the other decreases
    • None: there is no relationship
  5. What are the problems with correlational studies?
    • Directionality problem- before concluding that a correlation between variable 1 and 2 is due to changes in 1 causing changes in 2, it is important to realize the direction of causation may be the opposite, thus, from 2 to 1
    • Third variable problem- the correlation in variables may occur because both variables are related to a third variable
  6. How has Sir Francis Bacon contributed to psychology?
    • Argued that we needed an experimental approach, controlling variables to impute causality as there are no extraneous factors 
    • We must account for individual differences between people
  7. What is random assignment?
    • Used to account for individual differences 
    • Participants are randomly assigned to conditions and assume all of the varied differences between them average out
    • We use statistics to assume the results aren't due to chance
  8. How did electricity help the field of psychometrics?
    • Donders (1818)
    • P's shocked in right or left foot and asked to indicate which one it was by pressing a telegraph key 
    • Reaction times of one were subtracted from another to estimate the process time
  9. How can lab studies help to shed light on cultural differences in violence?
    • Cohen et al (1996)
    • White american male participants give saliva sample and asked to walk down a corridor past a confederate (a bouncer)
    • Either insulted by him or not 
    • Take another swab at the end of the lab and surveyed 
    • Southerners were more angry than amused (by the size of the bouncer) 
    • Southerners had more cortisol and testosterone in their systems (stress and fight or flight hormones)
    • Southerners got closer before backing down, and shook hands more forcefully than northerners did 
    • Asked how manly they felt, southerners felt less manly 
    • Illinois used as rare are an equal number of northerners and southerners so can be used to test this
Card Set:
Why do cowboys fight?
2015-04-16 08:10:04
Psychology,Evidence & Enquiry
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