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What are control conditions?
- Northern Americans were mainly farmers, emigrated from England to escape religious persecution
- More densely populated and stable societies characterised by a gradual accrual of wealth
- People in the south were typically herders of
- Wealth must be protected
- No real law enforcement
- Must protect your own resources by being more aggressive
Do homocide rates differ in the north and the south?
- Yes, the 10 worst states apart from California (worst being Louisiana) are in the south and the 10 best (best being Maine) are in the north
- Equal amount of felony related arguments in the north and south but twice as many argument killings in the south
How can we operationalise honour?
- Questionnaires, 'would you punch a drunkard if he bumped into your wife?', violence in response to bullying and theft is more popular in the south
- Car dealership study- honour murder causing prison or prison due to theft. Significantly more likely to get positive application (number of nice words) for the honour murderer
What are correlational studies?
- Used to look for relationships between variables.
- There are three possible results of a correlational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation.
- The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00.
- Positive: one increases and so does the other
- Negative: one increases and the other decreases
- None: there is no relationship
What are the problems with correlational studies?
- Directionality problem- before concluding that a correlation between variable 1 and 2 is due to changes in 1 causing changes in 2, it is important to realize the direction of causation may be the opposite, thus, from 2 to 1
- Third variable problem- the correlation in variables may occur because both variables are related to a third variable
How has Sir Francis Bacon contributed to psychology?
- Argued that we needed an experimental approach, controlling variables to impute causality as there are no extraneous factors
- We must account for individual differences between people
What is random assignment?
- Used to account for individual differences
- Participants are randomly assigned to conditions and assume all of the varied differences between them average out
- We use statistics to assume the results aren't due to chance
How did electricity help the field of psychometrics?
- Donders (1818)
- P's shocked in right or left foot and asked to indicate which one it was by pressing a telegraph key
- Reaction times of one were subtracted from another to estimate the process time
How can lab studies help to shed light on cultural differences in violence?
- Cohen et al (1996)
- White american male participants give saliva sample and asked to walk down a corridor past a confederate (a bouncer)
- Either insulted by him or not
- Take another swab at the end of the lab and surveyed
- Southerners were more angry than amused (by the size of the bouncer)
- Southerners had more cortisol and testosterone in their systems (stress and fight or flight hormones)
- Southerners got closer before backing down, and shook hands more forcefully than northerners did
- Asked how manly they felt, southerners felt less manly
- Illinois used as rare are an equal number of northerners and southerners so can be used to test this