When Jehovah made a covenant for the kingdom with David, he said of the line of kings of David's dynasty: "I myself shall become his father, and he himself will become my son. When he does wrong, I will also reprove him with the rod of men and with the strokes of the sons of Adam. (2 Sa. 7:14) Who served as "the rod of men" when the kings of David's dynasty were disciplined?
Here the rod of discipline that Jehovah as a Father would use was the Authority of the governments of the world, such as Babylon [IT- vol#2 pg 818 para. 2]