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What is a correlation?
- The relationship between 2 different factors (variables)
- A correlation coefficient describes direction (positive or negative) and degree (strength) of relationship between two variables.
- Most usually, people use higher correlations to suggest a stronger relationship. However for complex statistical reasons, the correlation coefficient doesn’t actually allow you to interpret the precise relationship strength
- The coefficient allows calculation of a p value, which indicates whether the degree of relationship is greater than expected by chance.
- For correlation, the null hypothesis is that the correlation coefficient = 0.
What is the positive manifold?
- Spearman (1904)
- Spearman used correlation matrices (tables of correlations between tests)
- It was fond that there tend to be more positive correlations than negative ones
- This means that people who do well on one test tend to do well on others too
What is 'g'?
- General intelligence, the first factor of intelligence
- An ability that is required to perform many types of mental ability tests
- (Spearman, 1904)
What is specific intelligence?
- The different abilities people possess such as “verbal”, “mechanical”, “arithmetic” or “perseveration”
- These abilities are present as well as general intelligence and explain why some scores are especially high for some
What are the two schools of thought about 'g'?
- Spearman argued that positive manifold is caused to a significant extent by g
- This is supported by Jensen (1998) who argues that, all mental tasks tap into g, with G corresponding with the individual differences associated with the speed of neural processes used in tests of mental ability
- BUT Gardner (1983) argues that there is no G and that the positive manifold is due to multiple intelligences
What is multiple intelligence theory?
- Gardner (1983)
- Intelligence can be divided into different modalities: musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic and later, existential and moral
- Intelligence is organised into three overarching categories:
- 1) The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture,
- 2) a set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life, and
- 3) the potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering new knowledge. (Gardner 1999)
- While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favour linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence (Gardner & Hatch, 1989)
What is crystallised intelligence?
- Cattell (1971)
- The application of things we have already learned; our knowledge.
- This knowledge can be used to solve problems that are similar to those we have already encountered.
- Most often shown on tests that use verbal
- material. This is because words are things we have learnt, and we often encode what we have seen verbally (e.g. so we can describe it later).
What is fluid intelligence?
- Cattell (1971)
- The ability to solve novel problems and learn new things, independent of one’s knowledge
- Often used in solving non-verbal (also sometimes called spatial or “performance”) problems such as Raven's progressive matrices (which shape matches?)
Does crystallised intelligence decline with age as quickly as fluid intelligence?
- No- Cattell (1971)
- No- Mackintosh (2005)
- Monitored performance of participants on Wechsler Adult IQ tests
- There was a significantly more rapid drop in nonverbal performance on tests than verbal performance
Can we lose crystallised skills with age?
- Yes- McNeil & Burgess (2002)
- SR, a university educated man had probable dementia
- Had well preserved addition, multiplication and subtraction abilities
- Lost the ability to perform long multiplication and other complex mathematics learned in school
Can we lose novel problem solving ability? (one definition for fluid intelligence)
- Yes- Shallice and Burgess (1991)
- Patients with rostral prefrontal cortex damage were given tests of ability
- Typical knowledge or other well-learned facts or procedures (e.g. reading, writing, memory for events or facts), and performed in the superior range on tests of crystallised intelligence (e.g. WAIS Vocabulary)
- Asked them to complete a multiple errands task involving buying specific items, finding out information (such as coldest place in Britain yesterday), meeting at a certain time and following rules such as spending as little money as possible
- Showed much more erratic and pointless routes, broke more rules, struggled to find information and buy the items listed more than controls
Is there a neural basis for general intelligence?
- Yes- Duncan et al (2000)
- Used Positron Emission Tomography scans to measure blood flow in the brain in easy and hard tasks measuring g
- Found blood flow increases in lateral prefrontal cortex when people were doing the high g tasks
- Concluded that the lateral prefrontal cortex supports mental abilities important to fluid intelligence, or g.
SIs multiple intelligences hypothesis be supported by neuro-imaging studies?
- Yes (Gilbert et al, 2006)
- Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
- Showed that different regions of the rostral prefrontal cortex seem to be specialised for different capabilities
- Supported by Roca et al (2010)
How have recent findings cast doubt on the theory of g?
- Roca et al (2010)
- Found that for some of the executive tasks, adjusting for “fluid intelligence” did not remove the group difference between patients and healthy controls.
- These tests included Proverb Interpretation; a test of response suppression & initiation
- =Hayling Sentence Completion Task; a test of multitasking = Hotel Task; and a test of social
- cognition = Faux Pas test.
- Roca et al (2010) then devised a score that represented the degree of impairment on the tests that could not be explained by “fluid intelligence”.
- When they examined the lesion overlaps for the six patients who showed the greatest negative value, they found that the location of the overlap was in rostal PFC, especially in the right hemisphere.
- In other words, the rostral PFC lesions caused an impairment which showed up on a number of executive tasks, but which could not be explained by changes in “fluid intelligence”