MicroBio Final (definitions only)

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Charlie581
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300964
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MicroBio Final (definitions only)
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2015-05-01 19:20:59
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MicroBio Final
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MicroBio Final Definitions
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  1. Adaptive immunity
    the acquired ability to recognize and destroy a particular pathogen or its products, dependent on previous exposure to the pathogen or its products; also called specific immunity and antigen-specific immunity
  2. Antibody
    a soluble protein produced by B cells and plasma cells that interacts with antigen; also called immunoglobulin
  3. Antigen
    a molecule that interacts with specific components of the immune system
  4. Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
    a macrophage, dendritic cell, or B cell that takes up and processes antigen and presents it to T-helper cells
  5. Autoantibody
    an antibody that reacts to self antigens
  6. B cell
    a lymphocyte with immunoglobulin surface receptors that produces immunoglobulin and may present antigens to T cells
  7. Bone marrow
    the primary lymphoid organ containing the pluripotent precursor cells for all blood and immune cells
  8. Chemokine
    a soluble protein that modulates an immune response
  9. Clone
    a copy of an antigen-reactive lymphocyte, usually in large numbers
  10. Cytokine
    a soluble protein produced by a leukocyte that modulates an immune response
  11. Delayed hypersensitivity
    an inflammatory allergic response mediated by TH1 lymphocytes
  12. Dendritic cell
    a phagocytic antigen-presenting cell found in various body tissues; transports antigen to secondary lymphoid organs
  13. Hypersensitivity
    an immune response leading to damage to host tissues Immediate hypersensitivity an allergic response mediated by vasoactive products released from IgE-sensitized mast cells
  14. Immunity
    the ability of an organism to resist infection
  15. Immunization (vaccination)
    the inoculation of a host with inactive or weakened pathogens or pathogen products to stimulate protective immunity
  16. Immunoglobulin (Ig)
    a soluble protein produced by B cells and plasma cells that interacts with antigen; also called antibody
  17. Inflammation
    nonspecific reaction to noxious stimuli such as toxins and pathogens, characterized by redness (erythema), swelling (edema), pain, and heat (fever), usually localized at the site of infection
  18. Innate immunity
    the noninducible ability to recognize and destroy an individual pathogen or its products that does not rely on previous exposure to a pathogen or its products; also called nonspecific immunity
  19. Leukocyte
    a nucleated cell in blood; also called a white blood cell
  20. Lymph
    a fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, like blood but lacking red blood cells
  21. Lymphocyte
    a subset of nucleated cells in blood involved in the adaptive immune response
  22. Macrophage
    a large leukocyte found in tissues that has phagocytic and antigen-presenting capabilities
  23. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
    A genetic region that encodes several proteins important for antigen processing and presentation.

    • MHC I proteins are expressed on all cells.
    • MHC II proteins are expressed only on antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
  24. Memory (immune memory)
    the ability to rapidly produce large quantities of specific immune cells or antibodies after subsequent exposure to a previously encountered antigen
  25. Neutrophil
    a leukocyte exhibiting phagocytic properties, a granular cytoplasm (granulocyte), and a multilobed nucleus; also called polymorphonuclear leukocyte or PMN
  26. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
    a repeating structural component of a microorganism or virus recognized by a pattern recognition receptor (PRR)
  27. Pattern recognition receptor (PRR)
    a protein in a phagocyte membrane that recognizes a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
  28. Phagocyte
    a cell that engulfs foreign particles, and can ingest, kill, and digest most pathogens
  29. Plasma
    the liquid portion of the blood containing proteins and other solutes
  30. Plasma cell
    a differentiated (activated) B cell that produces antibodies
  31. Primary adaptive immune response
    the production of antibodies or immune T cells on first exposure to antigen; the antibodies are mostly of the IgM class
  32. Primary lymphoid organ
    an organ in which antigen-reactive lymphocytes develop and become functional; the bone marrow is the primary lymphoid organ for B cells; the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ for T cells
  33. Secondary adaptive immune response
    the enhanced production of antibodies or immune T cells on second and subsequent exposures to antigen; the antibodies are mostly of the IgG class
  34. Serum
    the liquid portion of the blood with clotting proteins removed
  35. Specificity
    the ability of the immune response to interact with particular antigens
  36. Stem cell
    a pluripotent cell that can develop into other cell types
  37. Superantigen
    a pathogen product capable of eliciting an inappropriately strong immune response by stimulating greater than normal numbers of T cells
  38. T cell
    a lymphocyte that interacts with antigens through a T cell receptor for antigen; T cells are divided into functional subsets including TC (T-cytotoxic) cells and TH (T-helper) cells. TH cells are further subdivided into TH1 (inflammatory) cells and TH2 helper cells, which aid B cells in antibody formation
  39. T cell receptor (TCR)
    an antigen-specific receptor protein on the surface of T cells Thymus the primary lymphoid organ in which T cells develop
  40. Tolerance
    the acquired inability to produce an immune response to particular antigens Toxoid an attenuated form of a toxin that retains antigenicity but has lost toxicity
  41. Vaccination (immunization)
    the inoculation of a host with inactive or weakened pathogens or pathogen products to stimulate protective immunity
  42. Vaccine
    an inactivated or weakened pathogen or innocuous pathogen product used to stimulate protective immunity
  43. Antibody-mediated immunity
    immunity resulting from the action of antibodies
  44. Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
    a macrophage, dendritic cell, or B cell that processes anti- gens and presents them to a T-helper cell
  45. Cell-mediated immunity
    immunity resulting from the action of antigen-specific T cells
  46. Class I MHC protein
    an antigen-presenting molecule found on all nucleated vertebrate cells
  47. Class II MHC protein
    an antigen-presenting molecule found on macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells
  48. Complement
    a series of proteins that react in a sequential manner with antibody–antigen complexes, mannose-binding lectin, or alternative activation pathway proteins to amplify or potentiate target cell destruction
  49. Domain
    a region of a protein having a defined structure and function
  50. Epitope
    the portion of an antigen that reacts with a specific antibody or T cell receptor
  51. Hapten
    a low-molecular-weight molecule that combines with specific antibodies but is incapable of eliciting an immune response by itself
  52. Immune memory
    the capacity to respond more quickly and vigorously to second and subsequent exposures to an eliciting antigen
  53. Immunogen
    a molecule capable of eliciting an immune response
  54. Memory B cell
    a long-lived cell responsive to a specific antigen
  55. Natural killer (NK) cell
    a specialized lymphocyte that recognizes and destroys foreign cells or infected host cells in a nonspecific manner
  56. Opsonization
    the enhancement of phagocytosis due to the deposition of antibody
  57. Primary antibody response
    the production of antibody after initial exposure to antigen; mostly of the IgM class
  58. Secondary antibody response
    the production of antibody after a second and subsequent exposure to antigen; mostly of the IgG class
  59. Toll-like receptor (TLR)
    a pattern recognition receptor on phagocytes that interacts with a pathogen-associated molecular pattern
  60. Chemokine
    a small, soluble protein that modulates inflammatory reactions and immunity
  61. Clonal anergy
    the inability to produce an immune response to specific antigens due to neutralization of effector cells
  62. Clonal deletion
    for T cell selection in the thymus, the killing of useless or self-reactive clones
  63. Clonal selection
    the production by a B or T cell of copies of itself after antigen interaction
  64. Complementarity-determining region (CDR)
    a varying amino acid sequence within the variable domains of immunoglobulins or T cell receptors where contacts with antigen are made
  65. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
    antigen-presenting protein encoded by a major histocompatibility complex gene in humans
  66. Immunoglobulin gene superfamily
    a family of genes that are evolutionarily, structurally, and functionally related to immunoglobulins
  67. Motif
    in antigen presentation, a conserved amino acid sequence found in all peptides that bind to a given MHC protein
  68. Negative selection
    in T cell selection, the deletion of T cells that interact with self antigens in the thymus (see clonal deletion)
  69. Polymorphism
    in a population, the occurrence of multiple alleles for a gene locus at a higher frequency than can be explained by recent random mutations
  70. Positive selection
    in T cell selection, the growth and development of T cells that interact with self MHC–peptide in the thymus
  71. Somatic hypermutation
    the mutation of immunoglobulin genes at rates higher than those observed in other genes

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