Coasts part 4

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Coasts part 4
2015-04-19 11:53:41
coast parts geography
coastal management
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  1. Why do coasts need protecting?
    • To stop erosion
    • to protect against flooding
    • to stabilise dunes
    • to protect saltmarshes
  2. Define: hard engineering
    The use of large scale constructions to protect the coast against erosion and flooding
  3. What are the advantages to hard engineering?
    • effective
    • cheaper than repairing damage that may have otherwise been caused
    • visually reinforcing and reassuring
  4. What are the disadvantages to hard engineering?
    • expensive in comparison to soft engineering
    • maintenance required 
    • ugly
    • damages habitats 
    • long time to construct
    • negative consequences elsewhere
  5. What are the four coastal management options?
    • Retreat the line
    • Hold the line
    • Advance the line 
    • Do nothing
  6. What are sea walls?
    • Hard engineering technique
    • concrete wall placed at foot of cliff or top of beach to reflect waves back into the sea
  7. What are revetments?
    Wooden barriers placed at the foot of a cliff to break up the energy of a wave
  8. What is rip-rap?
    Large, tough rocks positioned at the foot of a cliff forming a permeable barrier that breaks up the waves
  9. What are gabions?
    Wire cages filled with small rocks that can be built up to create walls. often used to support weak cliffs.
  10. What are groynes?
    Timber structures built at right angles to the coast that trap sediment being moved along the coast by longshore drift
  11. What are barrages?
    LArge scale engineering project that involves the construction of a partly submerged wall in a bay with gates to control water flow in and out
  12. What is an off shore breakwater?
    A partly submerged rock barrier designed to break up waves before they reach the coast
  13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sea walls?
    • effective at stopping the sea
    • people can walk on them

    • unsightly 
    • expensive
  14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of revetments?

  15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of rip-rap?
    • easy to construct 
    • easy to maintain
    • can be used by people eg. sunbathing

    • rocks look out of place
    • safety risk
  16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of gabions?
    • encourages upper beach stability
    • blends in with landscape over time

    • metal can break 
    • unsightly
  17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of groynes?
    • increases tourist potential
    • protects land behind it

    • may increase erosion in front of it 
    • shifts problem doesn't solve it 
    • unnatural looking
  18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of barrages?
    multi-purpose eg electricity and harbour 

    • very expensive
    • damages habitats
  19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an offshore breakwater?

    • potential navigation hazard 
    • ugly
  20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of beach nourishment?
    • cheap
    • easy to maintain
    • looks natural
    • increases tourist potential

    • constant maintenance needed 
    • doesn't stop processes of erosion from effecting coast
  21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of dune regeneration?
    • natural coastline maintained
    • provides habitats
    • cheap
    • sustainable

    • time consuming
    • may fail 
    • people cannot go into area whilst it is being developed
  22. What are the advantages and disadvantages of marsh creation?
    • cheap
    • buffer against waves
    • wildlife habitat

    • agriculture land lost
    • compensation needed to be paid to farmers
  23. What are the advantages and disadvantages of land use/activity management?

    difficult to implement
  24. What is land use/activity management?
    • Floodplain zoning
    • putting people as far away from flood zones as possible and putting pastures and carparks in front of them which will be less affected by flood
  25. What is marsh creation?
    • soft engineering
    • Form of managed retreat that allows low-lying areas of coast to become flooded by the sea
  26. What is dune regeneration?
    Planting marram grass and providing wooden boardwalks to allow dunes to develop away from human interference
  27. What is beach replenishment?
    The addition of sand or single to an existing beach to make it higher or wider. Shingle used is dredged from nearby seabed
  28. Define: soft engineering
    Working with or using the environment to create sustainable protection against flooding and erosion
  29. What are the advantages of soft engineering?
    • cheap
    • natural looking
    • retains original landforms
  30. What are the disadvantages of soft engineering?
    • needs regular maintenance 
    • defences are always shifting
    • less effective in extreme weather
  31. What is beach reprofiling?
    • soft engineering
    • reshaping the beach so that it absorbs more energy during storms