AS DT Revision

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AS DT Revision
2015-05-22 12:00:56
Design Level

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  1. Characteristics of ABS?
    • High impact strength
    • Scratch Resistant
    • Lightweight
    • Durable
  2. Characteristics of Cellulose Acetate (CA)?
    • Tough
    • Lightweight with good strength
    • Transparent
    • Non-flammable
  3. Characteristics of Polyamide (Nylon)?
    • Hard/Tough
    • Resistant to wear due to its low coefficient of friction
  4. Characteristics of PMMA (Acrylic)?
    • Food-safe
    • Tough/Hard
    • Durable
    • Easily machined
  5. Characteristics of PP (Polypropylene)?
    • Lightweight
    • Food-safe
    • Good chemical resistance
    • Good impact resistance
  6. Characteristics of HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)?
    • Good impact resistance
    • Good strength and stiffness
    • Lightweight
  7. Characteristics of PS (Polystyrene)?
    • Colourless
    • Low impact strength
    • Lightweight
    • Rigid
  8. Characteristics of Expanded Polystyrene?
    • Floats
    • Good sound and heat insulator
    • Lightweight
    • Low strength
  9. Characteristics of LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)?
    • Low density (Lightweight)
    • Low stiffness and rigidity
    • Good chemical resistance
  10. Characteristics of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)?
    • High density
    • Good stiffness
    • Good chemical resistance
  11. Characteristics of uPVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)?
    • Good chemical resistance
    • Good resistance to weathering
    • Rigid/hard/tough
    • Lightweight
    • Can be coloured
  12. Characteristics of PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)?
    Moderate chemical resistance
  13. Characteristics of PC (Polycarbonate)?
    • Expensive
    • Good chemical resistance
  14. Characteristics of Epoxy Resin (as a material)?
    • High strength when reinforced with fibres (GRP)
    • Good chemical and wear resistance
  15. Characteristics of Melamine Formaldehyde?
    • Rigid
    • Good strength and hardness
    • Scratch resistant
    • Can be coloured
  16. Characteristics of Polyester resins?
    • Rigid
    • Brittle
    • Good heat and chemical resistance
  17. Characteristics of Urea Formaldehyde?
    • Rigid/hard
    • Good strength
    • Brittle
    • Heat-resistant
    • Good electrical insulator
  18. Uses for ABS?
    • Kitchen products
    • PC monitor cases
    • Toys
    • Safety Helmets
  19. Uses for Cellulose Acetate (CA)?
    • Handles for cutlery
    • Cupboard door knobs
    • Photographic film
  20. Uses for Polyamide (Nylon)?
    • Bearings/Gears
    • Curtain rail fittings
    • Clothes
  21. Uses for PMMA (Acrylic)?
    • Light units
    • Illuminated signs
    • Lenses for car lights
  22. Uses for PP (Polypropylene)?
    • Food containers
    • Medical equipment
    • String/Rope
  23. Uses for HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)?
    • Toys
    • Refrigerator linings
  24. Uses for PS (Polystyrene)?
    • Packaging
    • Disposable cups/plates
    • Containers
  25. Uses for Expanded Polystyrene?
    • Packaging
    • Disposable cups
    • Sound/heat insulation
  26. Uses for LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)?
    • Detergent bottles
    • Toys
    • Carrier bags
  27. Uses for HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)?
    • Crates
    • Bottles
    • Buckets
    • Bowels
  28. Uses for uPVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)?
    • Pipes/gutters
    • Bottles
    • Window frames
    • (If using un-plasticised PVC, it's also used for hose pipes)
  29. Uses for PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)?
    • Fibres used to make clothes
    • Blow-moulded to create bottles
    • Electrical Plugs
    • Video tapes
  30. Uses for PC (Polycarbonate)?
    • Protective riot shields
    • Safety glasses/helmets
    • Hairdryer parts
    • Vandal-proof street lights
  31. Uses for Epoxy Resins?
    • Surface coating
    • Encapsulation of electronic components
    • Adhesives
  32. Uses for Melamine Formaldehyde?
    • Tableware
    • Decorative laminates
  33. Uses for Polyester resins?
    • Casting
    • Used in glass reinforced plastic (boat hulls/car body parts)
  34. Uses for Urea Formaldehyde?
    • Electrical fittings
    • Adhesives
  35. What are Thermoplastics?
    Materials that can be repeatedly reheated and remoulded
  36. What are Thermosets?
    Materials that undergo a chemical change resulting in them becoming permanently rigid. Cannot be reshaped
  37. What are Elastomers?
    Polymers that have good elasticity. They can be distorted under pressure but will return to their original shape when the pressure is removed.
  38. What kind of additives can be added to plastics before processing?
    • Fillers (increase bulk of material)
    • Flame-retardants
    • Anti-static agents (Reduce effects of static electricity)
    • Plasticiser (Improve flow properties)
    • Stabilisers (Reduce effects of UV light/reduce degradation)
  39. What kind of polymer is PHA/Biopol?
    Biodegradable polymer
  40. Uses for Biodegradable polymer?
    • Packaging
    • Shopping bags
    • Medical products (disposable gloves)
    • Slow release medication
    • Disposable nappies
  41. How can Water-soluble polymers be used?
    Liquid detergent pouches (as they dissolve when coming into contact with hot water)
  42. Advantages of injection moulding?
    • Very complex 3-D shapes can be manufactured
    • High volumes can be produced with consistent quality
  43. Disadvantages of injection moulding?
    • Initial set-up costs are very high
    • Moulds are expensive
  44. Advantages of blow moulding?
    • Once set up, blow moulding is a very rapid procedure
    • Non-circular objects can be produced
  45. Disadvantages of blow moulding?
    • Moulds can be expensive
    • It's difficult to produce re-entrant shapes (draft angles)
    • Triangles are particularly challenging to produce
  46. Advantages of rotational moulding?
    • One-piece mouldings can be produced
    • Ideal for both rigid and flexible shapes
    • A large range of sizes
    • Surface textures can be applied by the mould
    • Moulds tend to be cheaper than other methods
  47. Disadvantage of rotational moulding?
    Only hollow shapes can be produced
  48. Advantages of vacuum/thermoforming
    • It's a low-cost process
    • It's good for smooth shapes
  49. Disadvantages of vacuum/thermoforming?
    • Deep moulds result in a thinning of the wall thickness where the product has been stretched
    • It's limited to simple designs
    • Trimming after the process is usually required
  50. Advantages of extrusion?
    • Low cost
    • Requires only simplistic moulds/dies
  51. Disadvantages of extrusion?
    • Very limited in the kind of products in can manufacture
    • Only continuous cross-sections possible
  52. Advantages of compression moulding?
    • Moderately complex parts can be produced
    • Little waste material
    • Start-up costs are relatively low
  53. Disadvantages of compression moulding?
    • It is necessary to manufacture a preform to mould the product around
    • The process is restricted to products of low complexity
  54. What are the uses for a thermosetting elastomer?
    • Electrical components (Cables/fibre optics)
    • Over-moulds for grips on power tools or kitchen utensils 
    • Seals and hoses for automotive industry
  55. What kind of polymer is LSR (Liquid silicon rubber) and how is it manufactured?
    • Thermosetting elastomer
    • It is manufactured with injection moulding techniques to combine the components together. Both are forced into a heated mould at the same time where the cross-linking can take place.
  56. What are the uses for LSR (Liquid silicon rubber)?
    • Electrical connectors
    • Bottle teats for infants
    • Kitchen utensils (Spatulas)
    • Medical equipment
  57. What are composites?
    A mixture of two of more different materials. Usually to improve or attain characteristics and properties of the materials.
  58. What is GRP made out of and what is its properties?
    • Fibres of glass added to polyester resins.
    • Tough/rigid
    • Lightweight
  59. What is the advantage of man-made board?
    • Increased stability against warping
    • They have equal strength in all directions unlike natural timber
  60. Characteristics of Fibre-reinforced composites?
    • They have a good strength to weight ratio
    • Resistant to corrosion
    • Good fatigue resistance
    • Low thermal expansion
  61. What technique is used to make GRP?
    • Laying up/Laminating
    • Create a mould then apply glass fibre matt and resin
  62. Uses of Kevlar?
    • Body protection
    • Sports equipment
    • Sails for windsurfing
    • Run-flat tyres that don't damage wheel rims
    • Gloves for manufacturing
  63. Properties of Kevlar?
    • High strength to weight ratio
    • Low chemical conductivity
    • High chemical resistance
    • High toughness
    • High cut-resistance
    • Flame-resistant and self-extinguish
  64. How does Kevlar work?
    • The fibres are woven into a cloth which can then be fashioned into different products.
    • When it receives a force, all horizontal and vertical fibres absorb the impact, reducing the impact.
  65. Characteristics of Particle-based composites?
    • High strength in compression, weaker in tension
    • Good stability
    • Uniform structure ensuring consistent strength
    • Generally free from surface defects
  66. Advantages of concrete?
    • Complex shapes can be formed
    • Properties similar to stone but more readily available
    • It can be cast on site
    • It is good in compression
  67. Disadvantages of concrete?
    It is poor in tension making it necessary to reinforce the concrete over long distances
  68. What are cermets?
    • Particle-based composites that are a mix of metal and ceramic particles.
    • Example: Tungsten Carbide
  69. Advantages of cermets?
    • Resistant to high temperatures
    • Tough and shock-resistant
  70. Disadvantages of cermets?
    • Brittle
    • High melting point
    • Due to its nature, can only be manufactured in one way (sintering)
  71. What is ALU and its properties?
    • A laminate of generally 0.3mm thick aluminum sandwiching a polyethylene core.
    • Lightweight, excellent rigidity and good impact resistance
    • Good sound and vibration damping
  72. Where is Tungsten Carbide used instead of a traditional material? Why?
    • On the cutting edge of kitchen knives.
    • More durable cutting edge that does not need sharpening
  73. Where is chipboard used instead of traditional materials? Why?
    • Flooring
    • Covers a large area whilst reducing cost
    • Chipboard does not have very good aesthetics so it must be covered by something else.
  74. Uses for Plywood?
    • Backs of furniture (cabinets/paneling)
    • Can be used for curved shapes
  75. Uses for Block Board?
    Generally used for tabletops and furniture.
  76. Uses for Stirling board?
    • Flooring for sheds and workshops
    • Roofing
  77. Uses for Chipboard?
    • Knockdown furniture (Flatpack)
    • Kitchen cupboards and worktops
    • Flooring
  78. Uses for MDF?
    • Furniture sides acting as a base for veneers
    • Pattern making for castings
  79. Uses for Hardboard?
    • Backs of cupboards
    • Drawer bottoms of kitchen units
  80. Uses for GRP?
    • Vehicle bodies
    • Front sections of locomotives
    • Sports equipment
  81. Uses for Carbon fibre?
    The manufacture of sports equipment
  82. Uses for Mild Steel and % carbon?
    • Nuts
    • Bolts
    • Washers
    • Car bodies
    • <0.3% carbon
  83. Uses for Medium Carbon Steel and % carbon?
    • Springs
    • Gardening tools
    • 0.3-0.6% carbon
  84. Uses for High Carbon Steel and % carbon?
    • Hand tools
    • Scriber
    • Chisels 
    • Plane blades
    • 0.6-1.7% carbon
  85. Uses for Cast Iron and % carbon?
    • Machine parts
    • Brake discs
    • Engines
    • 3.5% carbon
  86. Uses for Aluminium?
    • Kitchenware
    • Over head power cables
    • Plane bodies
    • Drinks cans
  87. Uses for Copper?
    • Electrical contacts
    • Jewellery
    • Pipe work for central heating and water
  88. Uses for Gold?
    • Jewellery
    • Electronics
  89. Uses for Lead?
    • Roofs
    • Adjoining brickwork
  90. Uses for Platinum?
    • Jewellery
    • Thermocouple cables
  91. Uses for Silver?
    • Expensive cutlery
    • Decorative items
    • Processing of photographic films
  92. Uses for Tin?
    • Food wrapping (foil)
    • Coating for steel in food cans
  93. Uses for Titanium?
    • Hip replacements
    • Spectacle frames
  94. Uses for Zinc?
    • Galvanisation
    • Buckets
    • Lock mechanisms/small gears
    • Casings for electrical units
  95. What are the benefits of alloying?
    • Changes the melting point
    • Changes the colour
    • Increases strength, hardness and ductility
    • Enhances resistance to corrosion
    • Changes electrical/thermal properties
  96. What is annealing?
    • Heat treatment that reverses the internal stresses associated with work hardening.
    • Achieved by heating the material to a temperature where the crystals grow, making the metal softer.
  97. What is hardening?
    • Heat treatment that changes the way the carbon within the steel affects the strength and hardness.
    • Carried out by heating the metal then cooling it rapidly.
    • Usually followed by tempering
  98. What is tempering?
    • Heat treatment that follows the hardening of some steels. It removes brittleness from the metal.
    • The material is heated to a given temperature then rapidly cooled.
  99. What is Case Hardening?
    • A method of increasing the hardness of steels that are low in carbon by adding carbon to the outer layer of the material.
    • Performed by heating to around 950 degrees and placing in a carbon-rich environment.
  100. What is a Wasting Process?
    • Processes where material is lost as waste. 
    • Example: Sawing or Filing
  101. What is a Redistribution Process?
    • Processes where materials are reshaped without loss of material.
    • They are: Press-forming, Forging, Casting and Sintering.
  102. What is Press-forming?
    Where a stamp or clamp of some sort presses a sheet of material between two formers to create a shape.
  103. What is Casting?
    • Inputting molten material (usually metal) into a mould or cast to form a shape. 
    • The mould can be made out of a varying amount of materials depending on the melting point of the material being cast. Cast materials include; steel, wax and sand.
  104. What is Sintering?
    • Compacting a fine powder into a mould so as to create a shape.
    • Used for materials that are difficult to process in any other way. Same process used for ceramics and metals.
  105. What is Forging?
    • Applying large forces to a piece of malleable metal whilst it is still hot so that its shape is changed without damaging its grain.
    • Can be done using hand tools or machines.
  106. What is slumping?
    • A process to form glass by softening the piece then letting it fall into a mould.
    • This process is used to create curved glass panels, such as car windscreens.
  107. What are the advantages of polymers compared to glass?
    • Lighter
    • Lower melting point which is useful for recycling
    • Impervious to gases (Carbonised drinks)
    • Can be squashed without breaking
    • Screw tops can be used for bottles
  108. What are the advantages of glass compared to polymers?
    • Glass is more rigid
    • More scratch resistant
    • Greater clarity
    • Usually unaffected by heat in normal situations
    • Can be used where heat resistance is required (Kitchenware)
    • Glass gives a sense of quality to the product
  109. Useful qualities of ceramics?
    • Ability to withstand high temperatures without distorting
    • Strength and rigidity at high temperatures
    • Resistance to wear
    • Freedom from impurities that come from grains