What is a temporarily stopped blood flow in the heart? What is the general term? What is it when there is tissue damage?
Angina Pectoric: Transient Ischemic attack
What is the outermost layer of the heart?
Which layer of the heart contains the inside layers composed of simple squamous epithelium?
Which layer of the heart contains the cardiac muscle and CT?
What is the inside layer of blood vessels composed of?
Simple squamous epithelium called the Endothelium
What is the Dicrotic Notch? What causes it?
A hiccup in BP wave, caused when the heart relaxes and the aortic semilunar valve shuts too early.
Is the regulation of baseline BP, short or long-term control?
What are the short-term controls of BP? (2 parts)
Happens moment to moment (when body is moving):
1. Neural Mechanisms
2. Baroreceptor reflex
What is the function of the baroreceptor reflex?
Stretch receptors in major artiries that give info regarding BP:
- Stretched arteries = High BP
- If BP drops, response is vasoconstriction
What is the main purpose of the Renin-Angiotensin mechanism?
What are the 3 main steps of the Regin Angiotensin Mechanism?
1. Gets started by the kidneys: monitors BP, and if it drops too low, the kidneys release an enzyme: RENIN
2. Renin catalyzes formation of Angiotensinogen which turns into Angiotensin I
3. Angiotensin then turns into Angiotensin II, which is formed by an angeiotensin converting enzyme: ACE
How does Angiotensin I get turned into Angiotensin II?
By an angiotensin converting enzyme: ACE
What is the main function of Angiotensin II and what 3 ways does it do this? Which one is short term?
1. Vasoconstrictor (ST)
2. Triggers release of ADH
3. Triggers adrenal cortex to release aldosterone, which tells kidneys to keep Na+
How does ADH get triggered? What is it's main function and what 2 ways does it do this? Which one is short term and long term?
Gets released by Angiotensin II; it is an antidiuetic hormone (vasopressin) which helps keep BP up by:
1. Tells kidneys to conserve water BY not releasing urine (LT)
2. Stimulates thirst center (ST)
How is aldosterone released and its function?
Released by the kidneys, triggered by angiotensin II:
- It helps keep BP up by telling kidneys to keep sodium concentration up.
What do ACE inhibitor drugs do in our body?
Control high BP by having less vasoconstriction and less ADH (less water retention)
How do beta blocker drogs control high BP?
Beta adrenergic receptors are from the sympathetic division.
- The sympathetic division increase HR.
- By blocking these beta receptors, blood flow is reduced, which lowers BP
**BP = Flow x Resistance**
How can venous blood vessels increase BP?
By squeezing venous blood vessels, it can shift more blood volume from venous side to arterial side. Increased blood flow = Increased BP
What is the function of the vasomotor system?
Activates smooth muscle in vessels to adjust diameter, hence controls BP.
What happens to the systemic blood vessels when there is:
1. decreased O2 and increased CO2?
2. Increased O2 and decreased CO2?
What happens in these scenarios in the pulmonary blood vessels?
3. Decreased O2 and increased CO2?
1. Local vasodilation
2. Local vasoconstriction
3. Local vasoconstriction
What physical force causes smooth muscle to contract?
Stretching: When blood pushes against the wall of vessels to stretch, it'll cause the vessel to constrict.
What is angiogenesis? What causes it?
When the body creates more blood vessels. Caused by:
- Weight gain: extra fat cells need more vessels to reach them
- Tumors: same reason for normal weight gain
Which layer of the blood vessels contains the smooth muscle and elastic fibers?
Which one contains the simple squamous epithelium?
T or F: Veins have thicker tunica medias
False: thinner tunica medias
This is the site of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissues
What is the diameter of a capillary?
1. What is the most common capillary?
2. Which capillary has "windows" or pores?
3. Which one can be found in the liver or spleen?
1. Continuous capillary
2. Fenestrated capillary
3. Sinusoidal capillary
This capillary is abundant in the choroid plexuses to make CSF and filtration?
This capillary is used for processing blood as it passes through the liver and spleen.
What is the pressure of blood when it first enters the arteriole and after it exits the venule?
40mmHg -> 20mmHg
T or F: Water leaves the arteriole and goes back in the venules due to osmotic pressure
How much fluid is lost out of the capillaries per day?
What are some of the functions of the lymphatic capillaries? (3 parts)
1. To absorb large proteins and even cells
2. Contains white blood cells for immune function and filtration
3. Takes up the fluid lost from capillaries to prevent edema
What are the 3 lymph node groups and their location?
Axillary: Under arm
Cervical: In neck
What can the spleen do during a bad hemmorhage?
It can contract to push blood back into the system
What is the function the spleen is known for? If the spleen is lost, which organ can take its place?
A big lymph node for your blood
What are the formed elements in blood?
Platelets and RBCs
The ratio of formed elements to the plasma is:
___% (cells + platelets)
This ratio is called what?
45% Formed elements
What is hematopoesis?
Blood Formationi: Formation of RBCs in the red bone marrow
If an RBC does not have a mitochondria, how does it gets its energy?
What is the RBC's lifespan? and where is it recycled in?
3-4 months: recycled in spleen and liver
What is the main protein inside RBCs? What are its components and functions?
1. Globin units (protein): binds to CO2
2. 4 Heme groups (iron): each one binds to one O2 molecule
**1 RBC = 4 Heme groups = 4 O2 molecules
T or F: Leukocytes are not confined to the circulatory system, it can wander tissue spaces
Which leukocyte is the most common and are phagocytes?
Which Leukocytes targets specific organisms?
Which Leukocyte turns into macrophages?
Fill in the Plasma components
1. 92% _____
2. 1% _____
3. 7% _____
2. dissolved nutrients, wastes, gases
3. Plasma proteins
Which plasma protein is the most common?
Albumin: over 60% of plasma proteins
What are the functions of alpha and beta globulins? (plasma proteins) 2 parts
1. Carriers for hydrophobic molecules
2. Helps balance osmotic pressure, along with other plasma proteins, so RBCs don't lyse.
What makes plasma proteins? What makes the gamma-globulin plasma protein?
The liver, while gamma-globulins are made in lymphocytes
Where do platelets originate from?
What do platelets release when exposed to collagen?
Serotonin that create vascular spasms to constrict flow in the region.
Explain the 6 parts of vessel tear repair, including platelet role and clot formation and removal.
1. Repair starts when platelets are exosed to collagen
2. They release serotonin to create vascular spasms to constrict the vessel
3. Platelets become stiky to make a platelet plug.
4. Clot formation occurs which happen in 30 steps:
- 29th step: Prothrombrin -> Thrombin
- 30th step: Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen into fibrin.
**Fibrin acts as a bandaid at the tear**
5. Clot retraction and repair is now needed
6. The clot (fibrin) is then dissolved by Plasmin
What is the junction called when 2 capillaries join together? What does it include?
- Digestive tract
What is the Intrinsic conduction system? What does it start with?
Refers to the heart beat self generated by the heart.
- Starts with SA node.
What prevents and atrial and ventricular heart muscles from exciting each other?
The fibrous skeleton
Starting at the SA node, what is the electrical conduction pathway?
SA node -> Internodal Pathway -> AV node
What structure spreads the electrical signals in the middle of the heart to left and right ventricals?
Bundle of His
What do the P-wave, QRS complex, and T-wave signify?
P-wave: Atrial Polarization
QRS: Ventricular depolarization
T-wave Ventricular repolarization.
T or F: the pulmonary circuit has 5x the resistance than the systemic circuit
T or F: The flow on both the systemic and pulmonary has to be equal?
What is the condition called when there is an Unequal flow of blood in the systemic and pulmonary circuits? What happens?
CHF: unequal flow can cause the systemic circuit to overflow the pulmonary ventricle
What is pulmonary congestion?
An unequal flow of blood when there is a bakflow of too much blood going out the pulmonary ventricle and goes back into the lungs
How do you calculate stroke volume (SV)? What are the typical values?
SV = End Diastolic Volume (EDV) - End Systolic Vol. (ESV)
SV = 135ml (EDV) - 65ml (ESV) = 70ml
How do you calculate cardiac output? What are the typical values?
Cardiac Output (CO) = HR x Stroke Volume (volume/beat)
- CO = 70bpm x ???? = 5 L/min
How much can our cardiac reserve increase our cardiac output by?