Human Anatomy chapter 27 Urinary system

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Human Anatomy chapter 27 Urinary system
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2015-05-05 10:04:02
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Human Anatomy chapter 27 Urinary system
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  1. Which of the following is not a function of the urinary system?

    A)removal of waste products from the bloodstream
    B)regulation of leukocyte and platelet production
    C)regulation of blood volume and, indirectly, blood pressure
    D)storage and excretion of urine
    B)regulation of leukocyte and platelet production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. All of the following structures are components of the urinary system except

    A)kidneys
    B)ureters
    C)urethra
    D)gallbladder
    D)gallbladder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which sequence correctly traces the path of urine after it leaves the kidneys?

    A)urinary bladder, urethra, ureters
    B)urethra, urinary bladder, ureters
    C)ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    D)urinary bladder, ureters, urethra
    C)ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What structure rests on the superior pole of each kidney?

    A)spleen
    B)transverse colon
    C)adrenal gland
    D)duodenum
    C)adrenal gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The four tissue layers surrounding and supporting the kidneys are the

    A)fibrous capsule, adipose capsule, renal capsule, and suspensory ligaments
    B)tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa, and adventitia
    C)fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, and paranephric fat
    D)major calyces, minor calyces, renal fascia, and renal cortex
    C)fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, and paranephric fat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The outer layer of the kidney, just internal to the fibrous capsule, is the renal

    A)column
    B)cortex
    C)medulla
    D)pelvis
    B)cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. In a typical adult kidney, the renal ____________ is subdivided into 8 to 15 distinct conical or triangular structures known as renal ____________.]

    A)medulla; columns
    B)cortex; papillae
    C)medulla; pyramids
    D)cortex; lobes
    C)medulla; pyramids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which term describes the tip of a renal pyramid that projects toward the renal sinus?

    A)renal column
    B)renal papilla
    C)minor calyx
    D)major calyx
    B)renal papilla
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter connect to the kidney at a prominent medial indentation known as the

    A)mediastinum
    B)hilum
    C)renal pelvis
    D)renal sinus
    B)hilum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is the functional filtration unit in the kidney?

    A)renal tubule
    B)nephron
    C)renal corpuscle
    D)glomerulus
    B)nephron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Components of a nephron include

    A)a renal corpuscle
    B)proximal and distal convoluted tubules
    C)a nephron loop
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  12. Components of a renal corpuscle include

    A)visceral and parietal layers of a renal capsule
    B)a renal tubule
    C)a glomerulus and glomerular capsule
    D)all of the above
    C)a glomerulus and glomerular capsule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. From the renal artery, blood flows through which sequence of arteries?

    A)arcuate, segmental, interlobular, interlobar
    B)segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular
    C)segmental, interlobular, interlobar, arcuate
    D)interlobar, interlobular, arcuate, segmental
    B)segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. In various nephrons, ____________ form a network around the convoluted tubules; surrounding the nephron loop are capillaries called the ____________.

    A)vasa recta; interlobular capillaries
    B)vasa recta; peritubular capillaries
    C)peritubular capillaries; interlobular capillaries
    D)peritubular capillaries; vasa recta
    D)peritubular capillaries; vasa recta
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Nephrons with nephron loops that barely penetrate the renal medulla are called

    A)cortical nephrons
    B)juxtamedullary nephrons
    C)nonfunctional nephrons
    D)dystrophic nephrons
    A)cortical nephrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a juxtamedullary nephron?

    A)the entire nephron is located in the superficial cortex of the kidney
    B)the proximal convoluted tubule leads into a long nephron loop
    C)blood arrives at the glomerular capillaries via an afferent arteriole
    D)the renal corpuscle comprises a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule
    A)the entire nephron is located in the superficial cortex of the kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Glomerular capillaries are characterized by all of the following except

    A)an endothelium with an unusually thin basement membrane
    B)blood under relatively high pressure, from afferent arterioles
    C)a fenestrated endothelium that allows materials to be filtered
    D)an epithelial covering of podocytes with pedicels and filtration slits
    A)an endothelium with an unusually thin basement membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Arrange the following to trace the path of filtrate through a renal tubule: (1) proximal convoluted tubule (2) distal convoluted tubule (3) ascending limb of nephron loop (4) descending limb of nephron loop

    A)2, 3, 4, 1
    B)1, 2, 3, 4
    C)3, 2, 1, 4
    D)1, 4, 3, 2
    D)1, 4, 3, 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The three interrelated processes of urine formation are

    A)filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
    B)secretion, reabsorption, and micturition
    C)excretion, storage, and micturition
    D)filtration, secretion, and excretion
    A)filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. From which part of the renal tubule are 60-65% of the water and virtually all nutrients, electrolytes, and plasma proteins reabsorbed into the blood?

    A)proximal convoluted tubule
    B)distal convoluted tubule
    C)descending limb of nephron loop
    D)ascending limb of nephron loop
    A)proximal convoluted tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which part of the renal tubule is lined throughout its length by a simple cuboidal epithelium with sparse, short microvilli?

    A)ascending limb of nephron loop
    B)proximal convoluted tubule
    C)descending limb of nephron loop
    D)distal convoluted tubule
    D)distal convoluted tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Hydrogen and potassium ions are secreted into the tubular fluid in the

    A)renal corpuscle
    B)proximal convoluted tubule
    C)nephron loop
    D)distal convoluted tubule
    D)distal convoluted tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which sequence correctly traces the flow of tubular fluid after it leaves the nephrons?

    A)collecting tubules, collecting ducts, papillary ducts
    B)papillary ducts, collecting tubules, collecting ducts
    C)collecting ducts, collecting tubules, papillary ducts
    D)papillary ducts, collecting ducts, collecting tubules
    A)collecting tubules, collecting ducts, papillary ducts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Innervation of the kidneys functions to

    A)regulate glomerular blood flow and filtrate formation
    B)stimulate the release of renin by juxtaglomerular cells
    C)refer pain to the T10-T12 dermatomes via the sympathetic pathway
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  25. Which type of epithelium lines the ureters and urinary bladder?

    A)transitional
    B)simple columnar
    C)simple cuboidal
    D)stratified squamous
    A)transitional
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Each ureter originates at the renal ____________ as it exits the hilum of its respective kidney.

    A)pelvis
    B)pyramid
    C)sinus
    D)papilla
    A)pelvis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The hollow, muscular organ that temporarily stores urine is the

    A)urinary bladder
    B)detrusor
    C)urachus
    D)trigone
    A)urinary bladder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Most of the mucosa of the urinary bladder is thrown into folds called ____________ that allow for extreme distension.

    A)trigones
    B)plicae
    C)rugae
    D)fimbriae
    C)rugae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which sequence correctly traces the flow of urine after it leaves the urinary bladder in a male?

    A)membranous urethra, prostatic urethra, spongy urethra
    B)renal pelvis, ureter, prostatic urethra, penile urethra
    C)prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra
    D)ureter, membranous urethra, prostatic urethra, spongy urethra
    C)prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which one of the following doesnot characterize the micturition reflex?

    A)impulses from stretch receptors signal the micturition center
    B)parasympathetic stimulation causes detrusor muscle to contract
    C)distension of bladder stimulates stretch receptors in bladder wall
    D)internal urethral sphincter relaxes under conscious, voluntary control
    D)internal urethral sphincter relaxes under conscious, voluntary control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which selection includes all components of a nephron?

    A)a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule
    B)a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
    C)proximal and distal convoluted tubules and a nephron loop
    D)a renal capsule, two convoluted tubules, and a nephron loop
    B)a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. A blockage in a glomerulus would directly obstruct blood flow into which vessel?

    A)efferent arteriole
    B)interlobular artery
    C)interlobar artery
    D)afferent arteriole
    A)efferent arteriole
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Compared with most capillaries, those of a glomerulus are unusual in which of the following ways?

    A)their endothelia have thicker basement membranes
    B)the blood pressure within them is much higher
    C)blood is still highly oxygenated when it leaves them
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  34. What three physical barriers must filtrate cross within the renal corpuscle?

    A)proximal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules, and papillary ducts
    B)podocytes, pedicels, and filtration slits
    C)macula densa, vascular pole, and parietal layer of glomerular capsule
    D)glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes
    D)glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following have no companion vessels?

    A)segmental arteries
    B)interlobular arteries
    C)arcuate veins
    D)interlobar veins
    A)segmental arteries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. In which of the following selections are the structure and its contents correctly matched?

    A)urine, distal convoluted tubule
    B)filtrate, glomerulus
    C)tubular fluid, proximal convoluted tubule
    D)all of the above
    C)tubular fluid, proximal convoluted tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Nephron loops of juxtamedullary nephrons are to ____________ as convoluted tubules of cortical nephrons are to ____________.

    A)vasa recta; peritubular capillaries
    B)afferent arterioles; efferent arterioles
    C)peritubular capillaries; vasa recta
    D)efferent arterioles; afferent arterioles
    A)vasa recta; peritubular capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. During which steps of urine formation are substances actually removed from the blood? (1) filtration (2) reabsorption (3) secretion

    A)1 and 2
    B)all three
    C)1 and 3
    D)2 and 3
    C)1 and 3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following structures assist in producing more concentrated urine?

    A)minor calyces and major calyces
    B)ureters and urinary bladder
    C)renal tubules and collecting ducts
    D)glomerular capsules
    C)renal tubules and collecting ducts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Physically part of a nephron, each ____________ is also part of a tiny structure that helps regulate blood pressure and volume.

    A)macula densa
    B)lamina densa
    C)juxtaglomerular apparatus
    D)juxtaglomerular cell
    A)macula densa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Renin is released by the ____________ in response to ____________ renal blood volume or solute concentration in the tubular fluid.

    A)juxtaglomerular cells; elevated
    B)juxtaglomerular cells; reduced
    C)macula densa; elevated
    D)macula densa; reduced
    B)juxtaglomerular cells; reduced
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Damage to the renal medulla would most directly impair the function of

    A)Bowman's capsules
    B)glomeruli
    C)convoluted tubules
    D)collecting ducts
    D)collecting ducts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which hormone, produced by the adrenal cortex in response to rising levels of angiotensin II, increases water reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules?

    A)antidiuretic hormone
    B)erythropoietin
    C)renin
    D)aldosterone
    D)aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The direct consequence of inadequate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion would most likely be

    A)dehydration
    B)urolithiasis
    C)dysuria
    D)incontinence
    A)dehydration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which statement does not correctly describe the path of urine flow?

    A)the major calyces combine to form the renal pelvis
    B)the minor calyces merge to form a major calyx
    C)ducts in each renal papilla drain into a minor calyx
    D)the renal pelvis conveys urine directly to the urethra
    D)the renal pelvis conveys urine directly to the urethra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. The renal plexus that innervates each kidney includes all of the following except

    A)sympathetic preganglionic axons from the T10-T12 paravertebral ganglia
    B)parasympathetic innervation from CN X (vagus nerve)
    C)visceral sensory axons that follow the sympathetic pathway
    D)sympathetic postganglionic axons from the T10-T12 spinal segments
    A)sympathetic preganglionic axons from the T10-T12 paravertebral ganglia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The ____________ innervation to the ____________ has no known effect.

    A)visceral sensory; urinary bladder
    B)parasympathetic; internal urethral sphincter
    C)sympathetic; kidney
    D)parasympathetic; kidney
    D)parasympathetic; kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which tunic found in the walls of most digestive organs, and the urinary bladder, is missing from the walls of the ureters?

    A)submucosa
    B)mucosa
    C)muscularis
    D)adventitia
    A)submucosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which description of the urinary bladder and urethra is false?

    A)the internal urethral sphincter is skeletal muscle under voluntary control
    B)the trigone of the urinary bladder serves to funnel urine into the urethra
    C)a sphincter encircles the urethral opening at the neck of the urinary bladder
    D)the entrance into the urethra is at the most inferior point in the bladder
    A)the internal urethral sphincter is skeletal muscle under voluntary control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following are attributable in whole or in part to the reduced sensitivity to aldosterone and ADH that results from aging?

    A)less reabsorption of water and sodium ions
    B)more frequent urination and increased daily fluid requirement
    C)greater fluctuations in blood volume and pressure
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  51. Often diagnosed by an intravenous pyelogram, ____________ can commonly be treated nonsurgically with lithotripsy.

    A)polyuria
    B)renal calculi
    C)hypercalcuria
    D)pyelonephritis
    B)renal calculi
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Through a series of developmental changes, a single extension of the embryonic hindgut that leads from the cloaca to the umbilicus forms all of the following except the

    A)lateral umbilical ligaments
    B)allantois
    C)urachus
    D)median umbilical ligament
    A)lateral umbilical ligaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following comparisons of the male and female urethra is false?

    A)the male urethra has three distinct sections; the female urethra has only one
    B)the male urethra functions in twice as many organ systems as the female urethra
    C)both sexes have the same type of epithelial lining near the external urethral orifice
    D)the internal and external urethral sphincters are much farther apart in the male
    D)the internal and external urethral sphincters are much farther apart in the male
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Kidneys that remain at their embryonic point of origin usually have normal function, although their blood supply comes from ____________ instead of typical renal arteries.

    A)the gonadal arteries
    B)branches of the common iliac arteries
    C)branches of the internal iliac arteries
    D)the inferior mesenteric artery
    B)branches of the common iliac arteries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Which of the following kidney anomalies has the most serious health consequences?

    A)supernumerary kidneys
    B)horseshoe kidney
    C)unilateral renal agenesis
    D)bilateral renal agenesis
    D)bilateral renal agenesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Which organ is responsible for filtering the blood?

    A)urethra
    B)urinary bladder
    C)kidney
    D)ureter
    C)kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Which statement is true about the urinary bladder?

    A)The bladder receives urine from the kidneys via the two urethras.
    B)The bladder neck is surrounded by the external urethral sphincter.
    C)The bladder is lined with transitional epithelium.
    D)The detrusor muscle contains two layers of smooth muscle.
    C)The bladder is lined with transitional epithelium.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Tubular fluid from the proximal convoluted tubule next travels to the

    A)distal convoluted tubule.
    B)nephron loop.
    C)collecting duct.
    D)capsular space.
    B)nephron loop.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. The apex of a renal pyramid is called the renal

    A)column.
    B)capsule.
    C)papilla.
    D)calyx.
    C)papilla.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. The arteries located at the corticomedullary junction of the kidney are the

    A)segmental arteries.
    B)renal arteries.
    C)interlobar arteries.
    D)arcuate arteries.
    D)arcuate arteries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which statement is false about the kidneys?

    A)The renal artery, renal vein, and ureter connect to the kidney at its hilum.
    B)The cortex is subdivided into renal pyramids.
    C)The right kidney is positioned more inferiorly than the left kidney.
    D)The kidney is covered by a fibrous capsule.
    B)The cortex is subdivided into renal pyramids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Urine in a major calyx of the kidney next travels to the

    A)urinary bladder.
    B)minor calyx.
    C)renal pelvis.
    D)ureter.
    C)renal pelvis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Which structure is not controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

    A)detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder
    B)muscularis of the ureter
    C)internal urethral sphincter
    D)external urethral sphincter
    D)external urethral sphincter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Reabsorption is the movement of fluid and solutes from the

    A)tubular fluid into the capsular space.
    B)filtrate into the glomerular capillaries.
    C)tubular fluid into the peritubular capillaries.
    D)blood vessels into the collecting ducts.
    C)tubular fluid into the peritubular capillaries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The micturition reflex controls

    A)filling of the urinary bladder.
    B)urine formation.
    C)voiding of the filled bladder.
    D)reabsorption of glucose from filtrate.
    C)voiding of the filled bladder.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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