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- Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea)
- Bacteria and Archaea
- Bacteriology: The study of bacteria
- Cell walls have peptidoglycan
- Binary Fission
- Flagella: whip-like tail that propels it through liquid medium. Bacteria move AGAINST their flagella (so backwards).
- Extremophiles (hot temps, salt, extreme enviroments)
- Cell walls have NO peptidoglycan
- Mycology: the study of fungus
- Cell wall made of chitin (also outer shell of lobsters)
- Absorb nutrients through cell wall
- Account for 10% of hospital infections
- Protozoology: the study of protozoa
- Single celled eukaryotic organisms, like microscopic animals
- Move by pseudopods (pulling themselves along a surface), flagella (move AGAINST their flagella), and cilia (help propel through liquid)
- Can be pathogenic
- Phycology: the study of algae
- Cell wall is cellulose
- Parasitic worms
- Parasitology: the study of parasites
- Tapeworms are an example of a FLATWORM
- Hookworms are an exmple of a ROUNDWORM
- Microscopic life stage
- Not truly alive
- Obligate intracellular parasites
- Capsid: protein coat surrounding nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
- Must have DNA or RNA
- Viroid: Piece of RNA that affects plants
- Prions: Misfolded protein (Mad Cow Disease)
Sizes of Microbes
- 1000 micrometers (μm) = 1 millimeter (mm)
- 1000 nanometers (nm) = 1 micrometer (μm)
- *STUDY HOW TO CONVERT BETWEEN THEM*
- i.e. Convert 100 μm to nm?
- -Since going from big to small, move decimal to right 3. Answer: 100,000 nm
History of Microbes
Early: Bible plauges (leprosy), Roman Gladiators (stuck swords in dead men before fighting), Greek Plague survivors
- Opened our eyes on: what cells were made of, the different types of cells in our bodies, that microbes existed and made us sick, microbes and microscopy has changed the way we look at the world
- Made of cells, different kinds of cells, microorganisms, disease causing microbes
- First compound scope (2 lenses)
- His microscope worked by lighting an oil lamp, getting the sunlight to direct through his water flask and then focused it through glass onto the specimen, then looked through the eyepiece.
- Cell Theory: All living things are composed of cells.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
- Much better microscopes, 300x magnification, “Animalcules”
- Small! There was a lens, specimen holder (for spit), focus screw, and handle.
- Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter.
- Redi tried to disprove: only proved maggots, not microbes (3 jars)
- Lavoisier: Oxygen needed not the Vital Life Force
- Virchow: Biogenesis (life from life)
- Pasteur: Eventually, many models later, disproves spontaneous generation. Did it with swan-necked flask (purified water, wanted to see if microbes from air would crawl up tube, didn't happen)