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What is perceptual adaptation?
- Stratton 1896,
- Wore vision inverting glasses for 8 days, after day 4 his vision appeared normal until he concentrated on objects
- Kohler 1962, similar experiment, participants saw cars as upside down but number plates as the right way up
- Could be unconscious inference (Helmholtz 1867), the brain is using internal knowledge and ideas to allow the status quo to continue
How can proprioception be fooled?
- Capelari et al (2009)
- Rubber hand is obscured from vision using a mirror making it look like it belonged to p'
- Stroking sensations as well as painful stimuli were felt in the glove by p's
What is change blindness?
- The phenomenon in which major changes are not noticed within one's field of vision, despite the fact that attention is being paid
- Simons and Levin (1998) participants spoke to confederates (asking directions) who's identities changed mid conversation after a period of distraction. Many failed to notice this
- Levin et al (2000) asked participants if they thought they would be able to notice a number of changes in a video, over 80% said they would but 11% actually did
How does attention relate to change blindness?
- Simons (2005)
- We have limited attentional resources so we must choose something to focus on
- We see this item or task in great detail yet we lack the attentional resources to attend to things happening outside of this
How do expectations relate to change blindness
- In the real world, major changes in one's environment are accompanied by motion and other things such as sound
- There is no motion in a change blindness experiment so we assume they have not happened and do not pay them attention (Goldstein, 2010)
Can change blindness have dangerous consequences in the real world?
- Yes- Haines (1991)
- Asked pilots to complete a flight simulator involving the landing of a plane
- 2 of 4 failed to notice an obstruction on the runway and landed through it
- Happens because they are focussed on landing the plane
What is external memory?
- The brain does not use cognitive resources to store every aspect of one's surroundings as it is assumed that they will not change, despite reviewing visual feedback
- Ballard et al (1997)
- P's were eye tracked to pick up blocks with a mouse and copy a model presented
- Block colours were changed when they looked to see where they went
- Instead of realising, participants put them in the place the block of the new colour belonged