Pathology of Neoplasia

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Anonymous
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301031
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Pathology of Neoplasia
Updated:
2015-04-18 12:03:04
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Pathology Neoplasia
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Vet Med - Module 12
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  1. What are the direct systemic effects of a tumour on the host?
    Space occupying effect, erosion of vessels (acute haemorrhage) and emboli into vessels (cause infarcts at distant sites)
  2. What are the indirect systemic effects on the host?
    Paraneoplastic syndrome
  3. List three examples of paraneoplastic syndromes
    • Cachexia
    • Hypercalcaemia
    • Hypoglycaemia
  4. What is cachexia?
    Disproportionate thinnes in animals with malignant tumours.  Animal will lose both fat and muscle.
  5. True or false: extra calories reverse the catabolic state of cachexia?
    False
  6. What paraneoplastic syndrome causes hypercalcaemia?
    Production of parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) by tumours
  7. What type of tumours produce PTHrP?
    Apocrine adenocarcinoma of anal sac in dog, lymphoma, multiple myeloma
  8. What are the clinical signs of hypercalcaemia?
    Muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia, anorexia, vomiting, renal failure
  9. What is an a) direct b) paraneoplastic cause of hypoglycaemia?
    • a) insulinoma (tumour of pancreas islet B-cells)
    • b) other tumour cell types that produce insulin like substances
  10. What are the clinical signs of hypoglycaemia?
    Lethargy, incoordination, muscle weakness, seizures
  11. List some of the important viral induced tumours in veterinary species
    • Feline leukaemia virus - lymphoma, leukaemia
    • Bovine leukaemia virus - lymphoma, leukaemia
    • Feline immunodeficiency virus - lymphoma
    • Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus - pulmonary carcinomas
    • Avian leukosis virus - lymphomas, leukaemias
    • Marek's disease - lymphoproliferative disease
  12. What is another name for Jaagsiekte?
    Ovine pulmonary carcinoma
  13. What is the test for Jaagsiekte?
    Wheelbarrow test - tip the sheep onto its front legs and if fluid exits through the nose the sheep has Jaagsiekte
  14. Where is there a high incidence of Jaagsiekte?
    Scotland, South Africa and Peru
  15. What are the microscopic findings of Jaagsiekte?
    Bronchioloavleolar carcinoma, possible sequelae (bronchopneumonia, abscesses, fibrous pleural adhesions), metastases
  16. What causes equine sarcoids?
    Non-productive infection by bovine papilloma virus
  17. What are equine sarcoids?
    Locally aggressive, non-metastatic fibroelastic skin tumours
  18. What is the most common type of tumour in domestic animals?
    Lymphoma/lymphosarcoma
  19. What causes lymphoma in a) cattle b) cats?
    • a) bovine leukaemia virus, sporadic bovine lymphoma 
    • c) feline leukaemia virus
  20. What are the two types of canine lymphoma?
    B or T cell lymphoma
  21. How do you tell if a dog has a B or T cell lymphoma?
    Immunohistochemistry.  A brown stain indicates a positive result.  The marker for T cell lymphoma is CD3 and the marker for B cell lymphoma is CD79a.
  22. What types of dogs are susceptible to the following tumours? a) lymphoma/sarcoma b) malignant histiocytosis c) haemangiosarcoma d) osteosarcoma e) mast cell tumour (skin)
    • a) boxer 
    • b) bernese mountain dog
    • c) GSD
    • d) Giant breeds, GSD, boxer, rottweiller
    • e) boxer, bulldog, retriever
  23. List some of the features of malignancy
    • Abnormal morphology
    • Invasion/metastasis
    • High mitotic index/abnormal mitoses
    • High N:C ratio
    • Absence of encapsulation
    • Lack of differentiation
  24. What are the differentials for canine round cell tumours?
    • Lymphoma/sarcoma
    • Canine cutaneous histiocytoma
    • Mast cell tumour
    • Plasmacytoma
    • (Transmissable venereal tumour)

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