Lecture 1

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Lecture 1
2015-04-18 17:15:37
Lecture 1- Form & Function
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  1. Diabetes
    Miscommunications between pancreas and glucose storage tissues (liver and muscles)
  2. Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS)
    Lack of communication between brain and muscles
  3. Regulator
    uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external/environmental fluctuation
  4. Conformer
    Allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
  5. Homeostasis
    “steady state,” internal balance regardless of external conditions
  6. Negative Feedback
    Mechanism that helps return a variable to its normal range, helps maintain homeostasis
  7. Acclimatization
    when homeostasis adjusts to changes in the external environment (climbing mountains)
  8. Thermoregulations
    process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
  9. Endothermic Animals
    generate heat by metabolism (birds, mammals)
  10. Ectothermic Animals
    gain heat from external sources
  11. Insulation
    things that help reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment (skin, feathers, fur, blubber)
  12. How does signaling by hormones work? Which system is involved?
    • Endocrine System
    • endocrine cells release hormones into the bloodstream, which ravel thought the body, only the cells with a specific receptor will be able to recognize the signal
  13. How does neuronal signaling work?
    stimulus travels down axon and stimulates a specific cell (can be a neuron or another cell)
  14. Main difference between hormonal signaling and neuronal signaling?
    • There are fewer cells involved in neuronal (only 1)
    • Hormonal affects more than one area/organ while neuronal is localized to a specific area/cell
  15. Vasodilation
    widening of blood vessels near the skin, which causes blood flow to increase
  16. Vasoconstriction
    reducing blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing diameter of blood vessels near skin
  17. Vasodilation vs. Vasoconstriction: want to cool down
    • want to get as much blood to get close to the surface of the skin as possible
    • vasodilation causes capillaries to circulate blood
    • skin gets warmer
    • results in loss of heat
  18. Vasodilation vs. Vasoconstriction: want to warm up
    • blood is prevented from flowing near surface of skin
    • don’t lose as much heat because skin gets colder
  19. Two alternative ways to cool down?
    • Sweating: moistens the skin, when the sweat evaporates, the skin cools down
    • Panting: increases cooling effect in birds and mammals, releases hot air and brings cold air in
  20. What role does hypothalamus play? (2 things)
    • Serves as thermostat for the body
    • Activates cooling mechanisms in the body
  21. Why is it a bad idea to cool down brain quickly if you are hot?
    If your body is really hot, cooling the hypothalamus too fast will make it think that the body is cold, and warming up response will be activated instead
  22. Responses to body temperature decreasing?
    • Vasodilation
    • Sweating
    • Panting
  23. Responses to body temperature increasing?
    • Vasoconstriction
    • Shivering
  24. Bioenergetics
    Overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal
  25. Metabolic Rate
    Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
  26. Metabolic rate can be determined by:
    • an animals heat loss
    • amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced
  27. Basal Metabolic Rate
    metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature
  28. Standard Metabolic Rate
    metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature
  29. As body mass increases, BMR (increases or decreases)?
  30. Mouse vs. Elephant — which has higher BMR?
    • mouse does because it has a higher metabolic rate per gram than the elephant does
    • Mouse consumes more energy per gram of body than elephant