Lecture 4 & Module 2 (Quiz 2)
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- Fermentation: Sugar to alcohol without air
- Pasteurization: Kill most bacteria, DOES NOT steralize (just kills off bacteria)
- Rabies Vaccine: Using rabbits for attenuation (making less dangerous/pathogenic).
- Germ Theory: Microbes can invade other organisms and cause disease
- Proposed aseptic techniques: Prevent contamination by unwanted microbes
Phenol and aseptic techniques during surgery which disinfected wounds.
Encouraged sanitary procedures by hand-washing (put a basin of water between autopsies of child birth, dramatically lowered bacteria)
- 4 Postulates: Specific causative agent must be found in every disease case, disease organism must be isolated from lesions of infected case and kept pure, pure culture (inocculated in animal) should produce symptoms of disease, same bacteria should be re-isolated from pure culture
- Helped develop sterile culture media
- Vaccine Work: Milkmaids/Cowpox for Smallpox
- Created immunity in a little boy by injecting him with disease, then vaccinated him which killed the microbes
- Avirulent: does not cause harm
- Veriolation: making people breathe in a particular virus
- Antibiotics: Naturally produced chemicals from bacteria and fungi that act against microbes.
- Synthetic Drugs: Synthetically made in a laboratory.
- Paul Ehrlich: 1st to coin chemotherapy and created Salvarsan (arsenic compound against syphilis).
- Antibiotics was a total accident
- Fungus on a plate of bacteria
- Bacteria on a plate that had been contaminated by mold. Bacteria stopped growing around the molded area, which was producing Penicillin
Atom vs. Molecule
- Atoms: Smallest component of a pure substance that exhibits physical and chemical properties of that substance
- Molecule: Combination of atoms
Big Four Atoms of Life
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen Bonds
- Ionic Bonds: Most chemicals, gives up and accepts electrons
- Covalent Bonds: Most organic compounds, sharing of electrons
- Hydrogen Bonds: Weakest of the 3, Oxygen is is negative and Hydrogen is positive
Synthesis Reaction and Decomposition
- Synthesis Reaction: Anabolism, building something larger (A+B=AB)
- Decomposition: Catabolism, taking something large and making it smaller (AB=A+B)
- They're reversible
Inorganic and Organic Molecules
- Inorganic: Usually small and simple molecules, typically lack Carbon, Ionic Bonds, not molecules of life
- Organic: Usually large and complex molecules, always contain Carbon and Hydrogen, Covalent Bonding, sharing electrons
- H for Acids, OH for bases, Neither for Salts
- More Acidic, the more H is released
- More Basic, the more OH is released
- 7 is Neutral on the scale
- Low on the scale is Acidic, high is Basic
- Log10 on the scale (how much more acidic is 3 vs 5? 10, 100, 1000
Amino, Carboxyl, Sulfhydryl and Alcohol Functional Groups
- Alcohol: Lipids and carbs, R-O-H
- Amino: Vital to the creation of proteins, NH2
- Sulfhydryl: Energy metabolism, protein structure, disulfide bridges, SH
- Carboxyl: Organic acids, lipids, proteins, C bonded to O and OH
Monomers and Polymers
- The major giant molecules of life
- Long chains are called polymers, which are made of repeating units called monomersA Polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical subunits (monomers) linked together
When Polymers are made, water (H2O) is removed.
- Lysis=to break
- Hydrolysis=water breaking
- Molecules are broken apart when water is added
- Organic polymers
- Main source of energy
- All contain Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen
- 3 Groups: Monosaccharides (3-7 carbons, simple sugars, monomers), Disaccharides (2 molecules), Polysaccharides (many molecules)
- Glycosidic Bond: Between 2 carbs, for dehydration synthesis
- Most common: glucose
- Organic Molecules
- Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols
- Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
- Insoluble in water
- More Hydrogen, Less Oxygen=More energy
- Glycerol (3 carbon alcohol) and 3 fatty acids
- An Ester Bond is formed
- Triglycerides: Hydrogen rich, large amounts of energy
Saturated and Unsaturated
- Saturated: lots of hydrogens
- Unsaturated: double bond between 2 carbons
- Hydrophilic: Literally meaning love for water, the charged polar "head"
- Hydrophobic: Literally meaning fear of water, uncharged "tails"
- They're bi-layer, which makes up the plasma membrane and allows many crucial functions to take place
4 ring compounds: steroids/hormones, spacing in Eukaryotic membranes
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