Lecture 4 & Module 2 (Quiz 2)

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Lecture 4 & Module 2 (Quiz 2)
2015-04-18 23:29:24
Lecture 4 and Mod 2
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  1. Pasteur
    • Fermentation: Sugar to alcohol without air
    • Pasteurization: Kill most bacteria, DOES NOT steralize (just kills off bacteria)
    • Rabies Vaccine: Using rabbits for attenuation (making less dangerous/pathogenic).
    • Germ Theory: Microbes can invade other organisms and cause disease
    • Proposed aseptic techniques: Prevent contamination by unwanted microbes
  2. Lister:
    Phenol and aseptic techniques during surgery which disinfected wounds.
  3. Semmelweiss
    Encouraged sanitary procedures by hand-washing (put a basin of water between autopsies of child birth, dramatically lowered bacteria)
  4. Koch
    • 4 Postulates: Specific causative agent must be found in every disease case, disease organism must be isolated from lesions of infected case and kept pure, pure culture (inocculated in animal) should produce symptoms of disease, same bacteria should be re-isolated from pure culture
    • Helped develop sterile culture media
  5. Jenner
    • Vaccine Work: Milkmaids/Cowpox for Smallpox
    • Created immunity in a little boy by injecting him with disease, then vaccinated him which killed the microbes 
    • Avirulent: does not cause harm
    • Veriolation: making people breathe in a particular virus
  6. Chemotherapy
    • Antibiotics: Naturally produced chemicals from bacteria and fungi that act against microbes.
    • Synthetic Drugs: Synthetically made in a laboratory.
    • Paul Ehrlich: 1st to coin chemotherapy and created Salvarsan (arsenic compound against syphilis).
  7. Alexander Flemming
    • Antibiotics was a total accident
    • Fungus on a plate of bacteria
    • Bacteria on a plate that had been contaminated by mold. Bacteria stopped growing around the molded area, which was producing Penicillin
  8. Atom vs. Molecule
    • Atoms: Smallest component of a pure substance that exhibits physical and chemical properties of that substance
    • Molecule: Combination of atoms
  9. Big Four Atoms of Life
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
  10. Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen Bonds
    • Ionic Bonds: Most chemicals, gives up and accepts electrons
    • Covalent Bonds: Most organic compounds, sharing of electrons
    • Hydrogen Bonds: Weakest of the 3, Oxygen is is negative and Hydrogen is positive
  11. Synthesis Reaction and Decomposition
    • Synthesis Reaction: Anabolism, building something larger (A+B=AB)
    • Decomposition: Catabolism, taking something large and making it smaller (AB=A+B)
    • They're reversible
  12. Inorganic and Organic Molecules
    • Inorganic: Usually small and simple molecules, typically lack Carbon, Ionic Bonds, not molecules of life
    • Organic: Usually large and complex molecules, always contain Carbon and Hydrogen, Covalent Bonding, sharing electrons
  13. pH Scale
    • H for Acids, OH for bases, Neither for Salts
    • More Acidic, the more H is released
    • More Basic, the more OH is released
    • 7 is Neutral on the scale
    • Low on the scale is Acidic, high is Basic
    • Log10 on the scale (how much more acidic is 3 vs 5? 10, 100, 1000
  14. Amino, Carboxyl, Sulfhydryl and Alcohol Functional Groups
    • Alcohol: Lipids and carbs, R-O-H
    • Amino: Vital to the creation of proteins, NH2
    • Sulfhydryl: Energy metabolism, protein structure, disulfide bridges, SH
    • Carboxyl: Organic acids, lipids, proteins, C bonded to O and OH
  15. Monomers and Polymers
    • The major giant molecules of life
    • Long chains are called polymers, which are made of repeating units called monomers
    • A Polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical subunits (monomers) linked together
  16. Dehydration Synthesis
    When Polymers are made, water (H2O) is removed.
  17. Hydrolysis
    • Hydro=water
    • Lysis=to break
    • Hydrolysis=water breaking
    • Molecules are broken apart when water is added
  18. Carbohydrates
    • Organic polymers
    • Main source of energy
    • All contain Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen
    • 3 Groups: Monosaccharides (3-7 carbons, simple sugars, monomers), Disaccharides (2 molecules), Polysaccharides (many molecules)
    • Glycosidic Bond: Between 2 carbs, for dehydration synthesis
    • Most common: glucose
  19. Lipids
    • Organic Molecules
    • Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols
    • Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • Insoluble in water
    • More Hydrogen, Less Oxygen=More energy
  20. Fats
    • Glycerol (3 carbon alcohol) and 3 fatty acids
    • An Ester Bond is formed
    • Triglycerides: Hydrogen rich, large amounts of energy
  21. Saturated and Unsaturated
    • Saturated: lots of hydrogens
    • Unsaturated: double bond between 2 carbons
  22. Phospholipids
    • Hydrophilic: Literally meaning love for water, the charged polar "head"
    • Hydrophobic: Literally meaning fear of water, uncharged "tails"
    • They're bi-layer, which makes up the plasma membrane and allows many crucial functions to take place
  23. Sterols
    4 ring compounds: steroids/hormones, spacing in Eukaryotic membranes