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Why is the mind different from a camera?
- Memories are constructed by combining prior memories and the information already in the brain with what is seen
- Things are added, omitted and transformed based on individual differences
- How we remember things depends on how we think about them at the time
- Loftus & Palmer (1974), asked to watch a video of a car accident and asked how fast they were going when they 'hit' each other. When this was changed to 'smashed into' each other estimates of speed were increased
How does encoding affect memory?
- Craik & Tulving (1975)
- Gave p's a list of words and asked either:
- Was the word in capitals? (shallow processing)
- Did the word rhyme with another? (auditory)
- Does the word fit in the following sentence...? (semantic)
- Memory was better for the deeper levels of processing
What is the baker baker paradox?
- Asked to remember either a man called Baker or a man who is a baker
- People are much more likely to remember the word if it is a profession as the name is much less meaningful
- The job has more meaningful associations that come to mind such as the smell of bread
- This is called elaborative encoding: old information is related to new information that is being encoded
Does elaborative encoding ability differ with age?
- No- Coane (2013)
- P's given a list of words and either asked to study it in any way they wanted, studied and tested in the following session or asked to create similarities between the word pairs
- There was not a significant difference between old and young p's
What is visual imagery memory?
Memory that is encoded as objects or other images within one's mind
Does visual imagery improve memory?
- Yes- Schnorr & Atkinson 1969
- P's given a list of words
- One group asked to create images related to the words and the other just asked to repeat them in their head
- P's who created the mental images remember 2x as many words
- This was even more pronounced when pairs of words were imagined as images interacting with each other (Wollen et al, 1972)
How good is our picture recognition memory?
- Standing (1973)
- Showed people normal images, vivid and striking ones or words
- Told to pay close attention for a memory tests
- Tested from 20-10,000 pictures
- Forced choice recognition test given (which one did you see ?)
- Memory for the vivid images was almost 100% after a 2 minute delay and 88% for two days later
Is our picture recognition memory
- Brady et al (2008)
- People looked at 3000 objects that passed in front of them and told to pay attention
- 3 test trials at the end, one for novel objects, one of different versions of the same object or one involving the same object in different states
- P's were 100
- 92%, 88% & 87% respectively
What is deja vu?
- Means already seen
- Feel like an event has happened to you before
- We don't really know why it happens, we can't replicate in the lab
- Could be source confusion, there is a misattribution for something relating to the event and a familiarity with the situation (Cleary , 2008)
- Cleary et al (2012)
- Used VR technology to expose p's to scenes similar to ones previously witnessed.
- Familiarity ratings and déjà vu reports among scenes recognized as new increased with increasing feature-match of a scene to one stored in memory, suggesting that feature-matching can produce familiarity and déjà vu when recall fails.