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List some welfare issues in transport
- Mixing/social disruption
- Food and water withdrawal
- Acceleration, motion, vibration
- Thermal challenges
What are the two categories of transport stressors?
- Physical stressors
- Psychological stressors
Give examples of a) physical b) psychological stressors?
- a) hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury, thermal stressors
- b) separation, restraint, handling, novelty
Aside from loading and unloading, what is the other major stressors during transport?
The thermal micro-environment
What two things is ventilation needed to remove?
- Heat and moisture generated by animals
- Airborne pollutants
What are the four ways heat can be exchanged between animals and their environment?
Convection, radiation, conduction and evaporation
What happens to convective, radiative and conductive transfer in hot conditions?
They are decreased - the animal depends on evaporative heat loss
What happens to evaporation as humidity increases?
Evaporation becomes less effective
If deep body temperature falls the animals are ...?
If deep body temperature rises the animals are ...?
Do animals tolerate a greater fall or rise in body temperature better?
List the signs of cold stress
- Postural changes
- Lassitude, lethargy and drowsiness
List the signs of heat stress
- Panting and/or sweating
- Postural changes
- Agitation, restlessness and 'fear'
What is passive ventilation?
Natural ventilation that relies on the natural sources of air movement
What direction does air move in during passive ventilation when the vehicle is moving?
The same direction as the vehicle
What is a problem with passive ventilation?
You get hold and cold spots in the vehicle
What is forced ventilation?
The use of fans to provide air movement in the transport container
What is the transport legislation for the UK?
Previously Welfare of Animals (Transport) WATO. But now is EU legislation - Welfare in Transport Regulation EC 1/2005.
Transported authorisations are needed for all journeys over ... for economic activity?
What must transporter authorisations have for a) short and long journeys b) long journeys?
- a) must be based in the UK (or represented in the UK), demonstrate sufficient and appropriate staff, equipment and operational procedures, have no record of serious infringements of any EU or UK animal welfare legislation
- b) vehicle authorisation certificate, must be able to track vehicle and talk to driver, and have contingency plans
List some vehicle standards required for transporting animals
- Ramp angles for all new vehicles
- Satellite navigation systems for horses and livestock
- Forced ventilation, temperature monitoring
- Insulated roofs
- Temperature range of 0-35°C
- Water for pigs
List times when an animal is not fit to travel
- They are unable to move independently without pain or walk unassisted
- They present a severe open wound or prolapse
- They are pregnant females for whom 90% or more expected gestation period has already passed or females who have given birth in the previous week
- They are new-born mammals in which the navel has not completely healed
- They are pigs of less than 3 weeks, lambs of less than 1 week and calves less than 10 days of age, unless they are being transported less than 100km
- They are dogs and cats of less than 8 weeks old unless they are accompanied by their mother
- They are cervine animals in velvet
What are the exceptions for animals to travel if they are sick or injured?
- If they are slightly injured or ill and transport would not cause additional suffering - if in doubt veterinary advice should be sought
- For the purposes of a council directive if the illness or injury is part of a research programme
- Transported under veterinary supervision for or following veterinary treatment or diagnosis
- Animals that have been submitted to veterinary procedures in relation to farming practices such as dehorning or castration, provided that wounds have completely healed
How long must animals be fed, watered and rested for before beginning a journey?
How long can poultry be transported for? How long can chicks within 72 hours of hatching be transported for?
How long can unweaned calves, lambs kids and foals still on a milk diet, and unweaned piglets be transported for?
9 hrs, 1 hr rest, then a further 9hrs
How long can cattle, sheep and goats be transported for?
14hrs, 1 hr rest, and then a further 14hrs
How long can pigs be transported for?
24hrs with continuous access to liquid
How long can horses be transported for?
24hrs with continuous access to liquid, and access to food every 8 hrs if necessary
After maximum permitted journey times what must happen to the animals?
They must be unloaded, fed, watered and rested for a further 24hrs at an approved assembly centre