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What are the two types of organizational change?
- planned change
- unplanned change
change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the organization
change that is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen
What are external forces for change?
- workforce diversity
- changing technology
- ethical behavior
When faced with Globalization, organizations must rethink the most efficient ways to ___, ___, ____.
- use resources
- disseminate/gather information
- develop people
When faced with Workforce Diversity, organizations will face _____, ____, ______.
- an aging workforce
- more minorities present
- majority of new workers will be female
When faced with Managing Ethical Behavior, organizations must deal with ethical treatment of _____, ____, _____, & ____.
- other organizations
When faced with Technological Change, organizations must deal with ____ & _____.
- changes in organizational structure
- changes in work relationships
What are Internal Forces for Change?
- declining effectiveness
- changing work climate
- company crisis
- changing employee expectations
What are the 3 scopes of change?
- incremental change
- strategic change
- transformational change
In the scope of change, change of a relatively small scope, such as making small improvements
In the scope of change, change of a larger scale, such as organizational restructuring
In the scope of change, change in which the organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state
The individual or group who undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization
Effective change leaders build relationships ___, ____, & _____.
- within the leadership team
- between the team and organizational members
- between the team and key environmental players
What are the advantages and disadvantages of an Internal Change Agent?
- know past history, political system, and culture
- must live with results of change so will move carefully
- may be associated with factions, accused of favoritism
- may be too close to the situation to be objective
What are the advantages and disadvantages of External Change Agents?
- outsider's objective view
- limited knowledge of organization's history
- may be viewed with suspicion
For an external change agent to succeed, they must be perceived as ______, ___, & ____.
- experts with proven track records
- similar to those they are working with
What are typical reasons that we Resist Change?
- fear of the unknown
- fear of loss
- fear of failure
- disruption of interpersonal relationships
- personality conflicts
- cultural assumptions and values
What are the tools that we can use in dealing with resistance to change?
- communication (details, rationale)
- participation in the process (ownership, commitment)
- empathy and support
What are some reactions to change that managers can intervene with?
- disengagement (withdrawal) -> confront
- disidentification (sadness, worry) -> explore; transfer
- disenchantment (negativity or anger toward change) ->neutralize; acknowledge
- disorientation (loss and confusion due to change) -> explain; plan
What are the 3-steps in Lewin's change model?
- unfreezing (encourage indi. to discard old behaviors)
- moving (new attitudes, values, and behaviors)
- refreezing (establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo)
How can we apply Lewin's Model to the Organization?
- unfreezing: the org eliminates rewards for current behavior
- moving: the org initiates new options and explains their rationale
- refreezing: org culture and formal reward systems encourage the new behaviors
a systematic approach to organizational improvement that applies behavioral science theory and research in order to increase individual and organizational well-being and effectiveness
What are the 5 group-focused techniques for organization development intervention?
- survey feedback
- management by objectives
- product and service quality programs
- team building
- process consultation
In Group OD Intervention Methods, a widely used method of intervention whereby employee attitudes are solicited by questionnaire. What are the benefits of this?
- survey feedback:
- anonymous, group reporting format, no repercussions, clear purpose, follow-up
In Group OD Intervention Methods, an organization wide intervention technique of joint goal setting between employees and managers. What are the benefits?
- management by objectives:
- initial objectives, periodic progress reviews, problem solving to remove obstacles to goal achievement
In Group OD Intervention Methods, a program that embeds product and service quality excellence into the organizational culture. What are the benefits?
- quality program:
- raise aspirations about product/service quality, embed product/service quality excellence in the organizational culture
In Group OD Intervention Methods, an intervention designed to improve the effectiveness of a work group. What are the benefits?
- team building:
- seek feedback, discuss errors, reflect on successes and failures, experiment with new ways of performing, climate of psychological safety
In Group OD Intervention Methods, an OD method that helps managers and employers improve the processes that are used in organizations
- process consultation:
- outside consultant enters organization, defines the relationship, chooses an approach, gathers data, diagnoses problem, intervenes, leaves organization
What are the 7 individual-focused techniques for organization development intervention?
- skills training
- leadership training & development
- executive coaching
- role negotiation
- job redesign
- health promotion programs
- career planning
In Individual OD Intervention, increasing the job knowledge, skills, and abilities that are necessary to do a job effectively.
- skill training:
- takes place in formal classroom setting, on the job (continual updating)
In Individual OD Intervention, a variety of techniques that are designed to enhance individual's leadership skills.
- leadership training & development:
- action learning, simulation, business games, role-playing, case studies
In Individual OD Intervention, a host of techniques for enhancing managers' skills in an organization.
- executive coaching:
- verbal information, intellectual skills, attitudes, development
In Individual OD Intervention, a technique whereby individuals meet and clarify their psychological contract
- role negotiation:
- outcomes include better understanding of what each can be expected to give and receive, & less ambiguity
In Individual OD Intervention, an OD intervention method that alters jobs to improve the fit between individual skills and the demands of the job.
- job redesign:
- realign task demands and individual capabilities, redesign jobs to fit new techniques and organization structures
In Individual OD Intervention, programs that promote stress reduction education and employee assistance.
Health Promotion Program
In Individual OD Intervention, planning that matches individual's career aspirations with organizational opportunities.
What are the Ethical Considerations in the Organizational Development Process?
- selection of the OD method
- voluntary participation
- potential for manipulation by the change agent