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a person's subjective experience of the world and mind
how things seem to the conscious person
define problems of other minds.
the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
how do people judge minds?
people judge minds according to the capacity for experience (such as the ability to feel pain, pleasure, hunger, consciousness, anger or fear) and agency (such as the ability for self-control, planning, memory o thought.)
what are the two mysteries of consciousness?
- problems of others minds
- the mind-body problem
define the mind-body problem.
the issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body.
what did Rene Descartes propose about the mind and body?
- proposed that the human body is a machine made of physical matter but the human mind or soul is separate entity made of thinking substance.
- suggested mind has effect on brain through pineal gland
what comes first, brain activity or thinking?
brain activity begins---> conscious wish to act is experienced----> voluntary movement occurs
- the brain begins to show electrical activity around half a second before a voluntary action
- the brain also started to show electrical activity before the person's conscious decision to move
what are the four basic properties of consciousness?
what is intentionality?
- the quality of being directed toward an object
- conscious attention in limited
what is unity?
resistance to division, or the ability to integrate information from all the body's senses into one coherent whole
what is selectivity? (2)
- the capacity to include some objects but not others
- which pieces of information to include and which to exclude
- is not a property of waking consciousness
what is dichotic listening?
in which people wearing headphones hear different messages in each ear.
how does consciousness decide what to filter in and what to tune out?
the conscious system is most inclined to select information of special interest to that person, which has come to be known as the cocktail-party phenomenon
define the cocktail-party phenomenon.
people tune in one message even while they filter out others near by
what is transience?
- the tendency to change
- when the mind wanders
define minimal consciousness and give an example.
- a low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behaviour.
- ex. when you sense the sun coming in through the window, you may turn toward the light
define full consciousness.
- you are aware of having a mental state while you are experiencing the mental state
- you are aware
what is self-consciousness? what is an example?
- distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
- ex. when you are embarrassed or when someone focuses the camera on them
what's an systematic approach to learn what's on people's mind?
experience-sampling technique: in which people are asked to report their conscious experiences at particular times
what is daydreaming?
a state of consciousness in which a seemingly purposeless flow of thoughts comes to mind
what is activated during daydreaming?
default network: widespread patter on activation in many areas of the brain
define mental control.
the attempt to change conscious states of mind
define thought suppression.
the conscious avoidance of thought
define the rebound effect of thought suppression.
the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
define the ionic process of mental control. (2)
- proposes that such ironic errors (trying to consciously achieve one task, may produce the opposite outcome) occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself produce them
- not present in consciousness
what did Sigmund Freud say about the unconscious?
his psychoanalytic theory viewed conscious thought as the surface of a much deeper mind made up of unconscious processes
define dynamic unconscious.
Freud describe it as an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces
what is repression?
according to Freud, the unconscious is a force to be held in check my repression which is a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious
what are Freudian slips?
speech errors and lapses of consciousness
define the cognitive unconscious.
all the mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions and behaviour even though they are not experienced by the person
define subliminal perception.
when thought or behaviour is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
define altered state of consciousness and give an example.
- a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and mind
- ex. dreaming
what is the difference between hypnagogic state and hypnopompic state?
- pre-sleep consciousness
- post-sleep consciousness
what is hypnic jerk?
a sudden quiver or sensation of dropping , as though missing a step on a staircase
define circadian rhythm.
- a naturally occurring 24-hour cycle
- circa (about) dies (day)
what are the activities in the brain during waking hours and during relaxation?
- waking hours: high-frequency activity (beta waves) during alertness
- relaxation: low-frequency activity (alpha waves) during relaxation
what are the 5 stages of sleep and their brain activities?
- stage 1 sleep: theta waves (lower than alpha waves)
- stage 2 sleep: shorts bursts of activity called sleep spindles and K complexes. sleep more difficult to waken
- stage 3 & 4 sleep: the deepest stages; slow-wave sleep (delta waves)
- stage 5 sleep: REM sleep; high frequency waves similar to beta waves
define REM sleep.
- a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and high level of brain activity
- pulse quickens, blood pressure rises, and there are signs of sexual arousal
define electrooculography (EOG).
an instrument that measures eye movements
what is the order of stages in a typical night's sleep? (3)
- stage 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1, REM(5)
- you continue to cycle between REM and slow-wave sleep stages every 90-mins throughout the night
- Periods of REM last longer as the night goes on, and lighter sleep stages predominate between these periods, with the deeper slow-wave stages 3&4 disappearing half way through the night
what are the effects of REM sleep deprivation?
memory problems and excessive aggression
what are the effects of slow-wave sleep deprivation?
- more physical effects
- feeling tired, fatigued, and hypersensitive to muscle and bone pain
define insomnia. (2)
- difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep
- most common sleep disorder
what are the causes and types of insomnia? (3)
- lifestyle choices like working night shifts (self-induced insomnia)
- in response to depression, anxiety, or some other condition (secondary insomnia)
- no obvious causal factors (primary insomnia)
what are some problems caused by sleeping pills when used for insomnia? (5)
- reduce the proportion of time spent in REM and slow-wave sleep
- low quality of sleep
- side effects such as grogginess and irritability during the day
- stopping the use of sleeping pills suddenly can produce worser insomnia
define sleep apnea. (2) who does it effect the most?
- a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep
- person with sleep apnea usually snores because apnea involves an involuntary obstruction of the breathing passage
- occurs most often in middle-age overweight men
how can you treat sleep apnea?
therapies involving weight loss, drugs, sleep masks that push air into the nasal passage or surgery may solve the problem
how can you treat insomnia?
- change sleeping pattern
- sleeping pills (not recommended)
- doing something else
define somnambulism or sleepwalking? (4)
- occurs when a person arises and walks around while asleep
- more common in children
- eyes open usually in a glassy stare
- engage in a strange/unwise behaviour
- a disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities
- involves the intrusion of a dreaming state of sleep (with REM) into waking and is often accompanied by unrelenting excessive sleepiness and uncontrollable sleep attacks, lasting from 30 secs to 30 mins
define sleep paralysis.
- the experience of waking up unable to move
- sometimes associated with narcolepsy
- usually happens when you're awakening from REM sleep before you have regained motor control
define night terrors.
- abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
- happen most often in non-REM sleep early in sleep cycle and they don't remember dreams
what are the 5 major characteristics of dream consciousness that distinguish it from the waking state?
- intensely feel emotion
- dream thought is illogical
- sensation is fully formed and meaningful
- dreaming occurs in uncritical acceptance
- we have difficulty remembering
what do dreams consist of?
dreams often consist of "interleaved fragments of experience" from different times and places that our mind weaves together into a single story
what was Freud's theory on dreams?
dreams represent wishes, and some of these wishes are unacceptable, taboo, and anxiety producing that the mind can only express them in disguised form
what is the difference between manifest content and latent content?
- manifest content: a dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning
- latent content: a dream's true underlying meaning
define the activation-synthesis model.
- one of the key theories of dreaming
- proposes that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs during sleep
what parts of the brain are activated and deactivated during REM sleep and dreaming?
- activation of amygdala,association areas, the motor cortex, the brain stem
- deactivation of prefrontal cortex
define psychoactive drugs.
- chemicals that influence consciousness or behaviour by altering the brain's chemical message system
- they exert their influence by increasing/decreasing activity or a neurotransmitter
tendency to use drugs more overtime occur due to 3 factors, what are they?
- drug tolerance
- physical dependence
- psychological dependence
define drug tolerance.
- the tendency for larger drug doses to be required over time to achieve the same effect
- with increase tolerance comes the danger to overdose
what is physical dependence?
when pain, convulsions, hallucinations, or other unpleasant symptoms accompany withdrawal
to return ychological dependence?
a strong desire to return to the drug even when physical withdrawal symptoms are gone
name the 5 types of psychoactive drug.
define depressants. (5)
- substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system
- most commonly used is alcohol
- have a sedative or calming effect, ted to induce sleep in high doses, and can arrest breathing in extremely high doses
- can produce both physical and psychological dependence
- increases activity of neurotransmitters
effects of alcohol.
- king od depressants
- initial effects: euphoria, reduced anxiety, positive feeling
- consumed in greater quantities: drunkenness, slowed reaction, slurred speech, poor judgements
name the two theories that suggest why people experience being drunk differently.
- expectancy theory
- alcohol myopia
define expectancy theory.
suggests that alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
what is balanced placebo design.
a study design in which behaviour is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus
define alcohol myopia .
proposed that alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
what are barbiturates and benzodiazepines and its effect as depressants?
- barbiturates: prescribe as sleep aids and as anesthetics before surgery
- benzodiazepines: antianxiety drugs
- both dangerous when combined with alcohol
- physical dependence possible and psychological dependence common
define stimulants. what do they include? what does withdrawals do?
- substances that excite the nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels.
- include caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine, modafinil and ecstasy
- increase the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain
- produce physical and psychological dependence
- withdrawal symptoms include fatigue and negative emotions
highly addictive drugs derived from opium (comes from poppy seeds) that relieve pain
- drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations
- produce profound changes in perception
- unlikely to be addictive
- is a plant whose leaves and buds contain a psychoactive drug called THC
- produces an intoxication that is mildly hallucinogenic.
- affects judgement and short term memory, impairs motor skills and coordination
define gateway drug.
a drug whose use increases the risk of the subsequent use of more harmful drugs
a social interaction in which a person (the hypnotist) makes suggestions that lead to a change in another person's (the subject's) subjective experience of the world
define posthypnotic amnesia.
the failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
what is hypnotic analgesia?
the reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis