3.8 Urine Formation

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efrain12
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301108
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3.8 Urine Formation
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2015-04-19 22:26:31
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AnP II
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Urine Formation
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  1. How does the kidney clean the blood? (layman term) (2)
    -it takes the blood puts it into a container (kidney tubule) then selectively sorts the material in the container.

    -it keeps some of the material (returns it to the bloodstream) and discards the remaining material (puts it into the urine)
  2. 3 processes that kidney uses to make urine
    -glomerular filtration

    -tubular absorption

    -tubular secretion
  3. Processes that kidney uses to make urine) glomerular filtration
    Putting blood into container  (kidney tubule)
  4. Processes that kidney uses to make urine) tubular absorption
    • Selective sorting and keeping
    • *what's not absorbed into bloodstream is discarded
  5. Processes that kidney uses to make urine) tubular secretion
    Discarding from blood to urine without going to filtration first
  6. Volumes) Filtrate ?
    Contains all plasma except proteins and cells (RBC)
  7. Volumes) urine ?
    Undesirable portion of the plasma that remains after the desirable portion of the plasma is returned to the blood
  8. Glomerular filtration)  short summary
    Put plasma into kidney tubules
  9. Glomerular filtration) Filtration membrane, where is it?
    Between blood and glomerular capsule
  10. Glomerular filtration ) Pores
    Are small to keep proteins and cells from entering kidney tubule
  11. Glomerular filtration ) filtration membrane, thin or thick?>
    thin
  12. Glomerular filtration ) net filtration pressure, active or passive process?
    • passive
    • *high to low concentration
  13. Glomerular filtration ) net filtration pressure is dictated by
    Difference between hydrostatic and osmotic pressures of glomerular capillaries vs. the Bowman's capsule
  14. Glomerular filtration ) mm Hg from blood to capsule
    10 mm hg
  15. GFR is
    Glomerular filtration rate
  16. Glomerular filtration ) GFR, average ml/min
    120 ml/min
  17. Glomerular filtration ) GFR, average L/day
    180 L/day
  18. Glomerular filtration ) regulation of GFR, why is it important?
    Protective to the kidney so its important to keep rate relatively constant
  19. JG cells cover the
    Afferent and efferent arterioles
  20. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) Intrinsic mechanism
    Mechanism that will try to decrease flow into glomerulus & membrane
  21. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) intrinsic mechanism activates
    autoregulation
  22. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) what does autoregulation lead to?
    • Myogenic (arteriole smooth muscle) performing reflexive constriction that will cause constriction bc it is stretched by incoming of blood
    • *less blood comes in will result
  23. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) 2nd mechanism
    tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
  24. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) overview of tubuloglomerular feedback
    • Macula densae releases chemical which regulate arteriole diameter
    • *mostly afferent
  25. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) IF high amount of citrate flow or high osmolality of filtrate then
    Macula dense cells release chemical ATP that causes constriction of afferents arteriole
  26. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) if filtrate flow rate is slow then
    Macula dense cells release nitric oxide to cause dilation of afferents arteriole
  27. If you have a high amount of blood flow to the kidney...) Extrinsic: Sympathetic innervation causes
    Constriction of afferents arteriole some efferent effects
  28. If you have a low amount of flow to kidney) renin-angiotensin: what is significant about afferents arterials?
    It has fewer angiotensin receptors than efferent arterials
  29. If you have a low amount of flow to kidney) renin-angiotensin: what produces renin?
    JG cells `
  30. If you have a low amount of flow to kidney) renin-angiotensin: linear schematic (6)
    -decrease in renal blood flow prompts

    -renin secretion

    -renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin

    -angiotensin leads to vasoconstriction and increased aldosterone released

    • -aldosterone released leads to increased sodium retention
    • *helps draw water to bloodstream

    -increases blood volume
  31. Tubular reabsorption) prevents what?
    Complete loss of blood components
  32. Tubular reabsorption) active reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule:
    -secondary active transport with Na
  33. Tubular reabsorption) active reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: transport maximum
    • Number of PRO carriers in membrane limits rate of reabsorption
    • *too much of one substance can be hard to reasbsrob it all bc of the limited carriers
  34. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule:
    Movement of ions along electrochemical gradient established by Na
  35. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: what happens to water?
    Obligatory water movement goes back into blood
  36. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: non-reabsorbed substances (3)
    Urea, creatinine and uric acid
  37. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: proximal convoluted tubule absorbs (6)
    -glucose

    -lactate

    -A.As

    -Na

    -HCO3

    -K
  38. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: loop of Henley absorbs (4)
    Water, Na, CL, K
  39. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: distal convoluted tubule absorbs...(3)
    na

    k

    Water
  40. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: where is most of the filtrate reabsorbed?
    In PCT
  41. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: tubular secretion is
    From blood to tubule avoiding filtration membrane
  42. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: tubule secretion mainly occurs at?
    PCT
  43. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: tubular secretion in DCT and collecting duct
    Some in DCT, CT
  44. Tubular reabsorption) Passive reabsorption to bloodstream from tubule: tubular secretion, what type of molecules go through this? (3)
    -k

    -nh4

    -other acids
  45. Regulation of urine volume) uses
    countercurrent mechanism
  46. Regulation of urine volume) what does the countercurrent mechanism do? (2)
    Allows kidney to regulate blood volume by increasing or decreasing the amount of water lost in urine

    Water retained goes back to bloodstream


    ***materials are exchanged in opposite directions
  47. Regulation of urine volume) which are the 2 tubes into he kidney that form the countercurrent mechanism?
    Loop of henle

    Vasa recta
  48. Regulation of urine volume) which type of nephron participates in countercurrent mechanism?
    Juxtamedullary nephron
  49. Regulation of urine volume) Descending limb of loop...
    • Permeable to water
    • *so it can lose it
  50. Regulation of urine volume) acsdening limb of loop is
    • Permeable to NA
    • *so loses Na
  51. Regulation of urine volume) collecting duct is
    • Permeable to urea
    • *so it can lose urea
  52. Regulation of urine volume) vasa rectal does what? (2)
    Absorbs material from loop & from collecting duct
  53. Regulation of urine volume) The water, ions lost that are picked up by vasa rectal...
    Maintains osmotic gradient from top to bottom (cortex to medulla)
  54. Regulation of urine volume) osmolattily in cortex and medulla
    Cortex = low

    medulla= high
  55. Regulation of urine volume) gradient: collecting duct...
    Uses the gradient to concentrate urine so it allows water to flow out
  56. Regulation of urine volume) cells of the CT are sensitive to
    ADH
  57. Regulation of urine volume) when ADH is present, CT
    Increases water permeability through water osmosis into interstitum then into vasa rectal and returned to blood
  58. Regulation of urine volume) CT has water channels in plasma membrane assembled bc of
    ADH
  59. Regulation of urine volume) CT: if ash is absent, water will
    Not be permitted to leave the CT regardless of the gradient outside
  60. DIlute urine mean
    -little or no ADH
  61. Concentrated urine
    • With ADH
    • *dehydrated
  62. What's renal clearance?
    Volume of plasma from which substance is cleared per minute
  63. Urine characteristics ) yellow
    bc of hemoglobin breakdown
  64. Urine characteristics ) odor (2)
    minimal

    Depends on bacteria and urea
  65. Urine characteristics ) pH
    Acidic (6.0)
  66. Urine characteristics ) concentration variable
    Not too great in humans compared with desert animals
  67. Urine characteristics ) does it contain other substances like glucose or proteins?
    No it should not

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