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What are microbiological criteria?
Microbiological criteria provide guidance on the acceptability of food and the manufacturing process
What are satisfactory criteria for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods?
They must not be detectable in 25g
What is the legislation for microbiological criteria in the UK?
EU commission regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs (EC No 2073/2005)
Which two organisms does the food safety criteria of legislation mainly focus on?
Salmonella and Listeria
How often should sampling take place in a meat plant?
At least weekly
What are the microbiological criteria for individual foods?
- Salmonella in meat, meat preparations and products thereof
- Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods where produced in a plant supervised by the OV
- Aerobic colony counts
What action must be taken if individual batches do not met the criteria?
They must be disposed of safely or reprocessed in an approved fashion
What are the different categories of bacterial spoilage organisms?
Pathogens, incidentals, psychotrophs
What are the different categories of fungal spoilage organisms?
List different places organisms in food can come from
Animals, plants, the environment, pests, directly from handlers, water used in preparation, surfaces
How can we monitor food?
- Visually - state of package, surface appearance, deep appearance
- Olfactory - smell
- Gustatory - taste cooked/prepared
List different mechanisms of spoilage
- Sugar fermentation with acid and gas production
- Protein hydrolysis due to bacterial enzymes ie proteases
- Digestion of complex carbohydrates due to fungal enzymes i.e. pectinases
- Lipolysis - lipolytic enzymes
- Surface growth
List different pathogens of environmental origin
Listeria monocytogenes, aeromonas hydrophila/sobria/caviae, C. botulinum, Antrax, Mycobacterium, Mycotoxic fungi, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Blue green algae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
List different types of mould
- "Black spot" - Cladosporium
- "White spot" - Sporotrichum
- "Whiskers" - Mucor