Micro Exam 4

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Micro Exam 4
2015-04-21 12:25:24
chapter 15 16 17

Micro exam 4
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  1. What is the name and function of the enzyme common to sweat, sebum, mucus, and tears?
    lysozyme; to destroy bacteria cell wall
  2. List the major components of the 1st line of defense:
    • skin
    • mucus
    • lacrimal
    • normal microbiota
    • secrections
  3. Is the first line of defense specific?
  4. How does skin help serve as the first line of defense?
    • sloughing off trapped bacteria
    • sebum that lowers the pH
    • sweating
    • dendritic cells that are phagocytes
  5. What is plasma and its function?
    a) plasma is the water that remains after the blood cells have been removed

    b) its function is inflammation and clotting
  6. Name the five types of secretions:
    • saliva
    • urine
    • seminal fluid
    • menstrual
    • vagina
  7. What is the name of the cell that makes mucus?
    globlet cells
  8. Identify the formed elements of the blood and function:
    • erythrocytes-carry oxygen and CO2 in the blood
    • leukocytes-fighters/defenders
    • platelets-blood clotting
  9. Name the three granulocytes:
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
    • neutrophils
  10. Name the two agranulocytes:
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  11. Define diapedesis:
    monocytes wander out and become mature macrophages
  12. State the colors each granulocyte changes to:
    • a) blue
    • b) red to orange
    • c) purple/lilac
  13. Define opsonization:
    antibodies that coat microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis
  14. Acquired specific immunity involves the response of ______?
    B and T lymphocytes
  15. A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a ______?
  16. MHC I molecules are found in all cells except _____?
  17. The immunoglobin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta is ______?
  18. Name the blood cells that are involved in phagocytosis:
    • neutrophil
    • eosinophil
    • mature monocytes (macrophages)**
  19. Describe the steps of phagocytosis:
    • chemotaxis
    • adherence
    • ingestion
    • maturation
    • killing
    • elimination
  20. Phagocytic cells associated with the epidermis are called _____.
    dendritic cells
  21. The end result of both the classical and alternative complement systems are called what?
  22. Phagocytosis is defined as
    ingestion of material by eukaryotic cell
  23. A decrease in antibody production might indirectly affect what?
  24. Why is the alternative pathway of complement useful in the early stages of an infection?
    It doesnt rely on the activation of antibodies
  25. Mucous membranes are a part of
    innate defense
  26. Which of the following defense systems would be involved in eliminating virally-infected cells?
  27. Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?
    cytotoxic T-cells
  28. Which of the following classes of antibody is most likely to be made by the oldest plasma cell in a population of B cells?
  29. A physician wants to stimulate immunological memory in a patient. Which of the following types of immunity would be the most useful?
    artificially acquired active immunity
  30. Name the three pathways of the Compliment System:
    • 1) Classical-use of antibodies
    • 2) Alternative-use of compliment proteins BPD     factors
    • 3) Lectin-microbial polysaccharides or sugars
  31. T/F: All three pathways lead to the activation of MAC (Membrane Attack Complex)
  32. T/F: Inflammation is non specific and occurs with tissue damage
  33. Name the four signs of inflammation:
    • redness-ruber
    • heat-color
    • swelling-edema
    • pain-dolar
  34. What is vasodialation?
    • blood vessels
    • larger diameter
    • thinner diameter
  35. Mucus-secreting membranes are found in the _____?
    • urinary tract
    • respiratory tract
    • digestive tract
  36. The Complement system involves:
    serum proteins involved in non specific defense
  37. The alternative complement pathway involves what?
    BPD factors
  38. Complement must be inactivated because if it werent, what would happen?
    it could make holes in the body's own cells
  39. T/F: The surface cells of the epidermis are alive.
  40. T/F: The surface cells of the mucous membrane are alive.
  41. T/F: B-cells are made and mature in the red bone marrow.
  42. T/F: T-cells are made in the red bone marrow but mature in the thymus.
  43. T/F: IgG can cross into the placenta, long lasting, and are most common.
  44. T/F: IgA is found in breastmilk
  45. T/F: IgM is first produced in infants.
  46. Name the primary organs of the lymphatic system:
    • red bone marrow
    • thymus
  47. Name the secondary organs of the lymphatic system:
    • nodes
    • spleen
    • MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues)
  48. T/F: Antibodies do not last long and need memory B-cells.
  49. T/F: B-cells are extracellular
  50. T/F: T-cells are intracellular
  51. T/F: An activated B-cell is called plasma
  52. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of adaptive immunity?
    responsiveness to self
  53. Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells via two pathways. Which one of the following is the pathway that uses substances also used by natural killer cells?
    perforin-granzyme pathway
  54. Where are autoantigens found?
    within normal body cells
  55. All of the following are components of the lymphatic system EXCEPT __________.
    the liver
  56. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY paired?
    helper T cell type I: secrete cytokines to activate B cells
  57. Which of the following would be a source of endogenous antigens?
    A viral peptide could be presented in MHC I protein on a nucleated cell’s plasma membrane.
  58. The important difference between neutralization and opsonization by antibodies is that __________.
    neutralization blocks binding sites on the microbe to reduce harm, and opsonization enhances phagocytosis
  59. Antibodies may have catalytic properties that allow them to kill bacteria directly by __________.
  60. Which of the following types of cells is depleted during HIV infection?
    helper T cells
  61. All of the following are examples of cytokines EXCEPT __________.
  62. Clonal deletion occurs at which of the following sites?
    bone marrow and thymus
  63. Which of the following statements regarding MHC proteins is true?
    MHC allows the body to distinguish between self and nonself.
  64. Class II MHC molecules are found on which of the following types of cells?
    dendritic cells
  65. Which of the following is a true statement concerning T-independent antigens?
    They are large enough to cause crosslinking of B cell receptors.
  66. The speed and effectiveness of the secondary immune response is dependent upon which of the following types of cells?
    memory cells
  67. A person bitten by a rattlesnake would need which of the following in order to survive?
    artificially acquired passive immunotherapy