Lab quiz 4

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Lab quiz 4
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2015-04-21 03:54:52
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  1. Bacteria can be classified into 5 main categories
    • Obligate Aerobe
    • Obligate Anaerobe
    • Facultative Anaerobes
    • Microaerophiles
    • Aerotolerant Anaerobes
  2. Obligate aerobe
    requres oxygen for growth
  3. Obligate Anaerobe
    cannot tolerate oxygen

    they lack catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Brewer's anaerobic jar
  4. Facultative Anaerobes
    can grow in the presence of oxygen or absence via fermentation
  5. Microaerophiles
    require decreased oxygen (5-10% vs 20%) and increased carbon dioxide conditions.

    Candle jar
  6. Aerotolerant Anaerobes
    indifferent to the presense of oxygen

    do not require oxygen
  7. Oxygen Requirement Test uses what medium
    Fluid thioglycollate medium
  8. Oxygen Requirement Test -Fluid thioglycollate medium contains
    Resazurin dye - indicates the presence of oxygen 

    Dye turns pink in the presence of oxygen

    Middle and bottom of tube should remain color of agar
  9. What packet is used in a Brewer's anaerobic jar
    Gaspak - contains hydrogen and palladium which removes oxygen by forming water.
  10. Brewer's anaerobic jar indicator
    Indicator strip of methylene blue

    Becomes colorless in the absence of oxygen
  11. Oxygen Requirement Test bacteria
    • E. coli - facultative - not motile
    • C. rubrum - anaerobic
    • M. luteus - microaerophil
    • B. subtilis - aerobic
  12. Oxidase test is used to detect
    Cytochrome c oxidase
  13. cytochrome oxidase
    an enzyme of the bacterial electron transport chain
  14. oxidase test differentiates between
    Gram negative organisms such as:

    Enterobacteriaceae - all oxidase negative

    Pseaudomonas, Alcaligenes, Neisseria - oxidase positive
  15. oxidase test also differentiates
    • Staphylococcus - oxidase negative
    • Micrococcus - oxidase positive
  16. oxidase test reagent
    p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride - substitutes for oxygen as an artificial electron acceptor
  17. oxidase test reagent color change
    is colorless in its reduced state

    in presence of cytochrome oxidase and oxygen, it is oxidized and appears purple
  18. Oxygen Requirement test 2
    stab thioglycollate tube with needle all the way to the bottom. loosen caps
  19. oxidase test
    use a swab to pick up bacteria and put ampoule on it. wait for color change
  20. oxidase test result
    negative result - no color or gray

    positive result - purple
  21. oxidase test bacteria
    • a. faecalis - positive
    • S. aureaus - negative
  22. During aerobic respiration microorganisms produce
    hydrogen peroxide h202 and superoxide
  23. Catalase
    degrages hydrogen peroxide to water and free oxygen
  24. catalase test distinguishes between
    • hemolytic streptococci - catalase negative
    • hemolytic staphylococci - catalase positive
  25. the production of catalse can be determined by
    adding h202 to a bacterial sample on a slide
  26. catalase test positive or negative
    • positive reaction = bubbles
    • negative reaction = no bubbles
  27. catalase test bacteria
    • K. pneumoniae - positive
    • S. salivarius - negative
  28. organisms are distinguished on the basis of
    the carbs (sugars) they are capable of fermenting
  29. simple carbs
    glucose - monosaccharide
  30. complex carbs
    • lactose, sucrose
    • disacharides - must be cleaved into two monosaccharides before used as energy
  31. media testing for carbohydrate fermentation contain
    phenol red - color reagent that is used as a pH indicator

    • red - neutral pH
    • yellow - acidic pH
    • pink - alkaline pH
  32. an alkaline condition will occur when
    the organism does not ferment the carbohydrate but rather uses the protein nutrients in the broth resulting in alkaline byproducts
  33. carbohydrate fermentation also contains
    Durham tube - a small inverted tube used for trapping gas (CO2) that may be produced during fermentation
  34. When fermentation of the carb occurs
    the broth will turn YELLOW and the durham tube may or may not contain gas
  35. carbohydrate fermentation broths used
    • Mannitol
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • Glucose
  36. carbohydrate fermentation
    transfer pinpoint amount of bacteria to broth. loosen caps
  37. carbohydrate fermentation bacteria
    • B. cereus
    • E. aerogenes
    • E. coli
    • S. aureus
  38. Cf test - B. cereus
    • m - negative
    • s - AG
    • l - A
    • g - AG
  39. Cf test - E. aerogenes
    • m - AG
    • s - AG
    • l - AG
    • g - AG
  40. Cf test - E. coli
    • m - AG
    • s - AG
    • l - AG
    • g - AG
  41. Cf test - S. aureus
    • m - AG
    • s - negative
    • l - AG
    • g - AG
  42. enzyme Urease
    Helicobacter pylori uses to neutralize stomach acids by splitting urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia so it can invade mucosal cells of the stomach and establish disease
  43. Urease test is useful to identify
    Gram-negative rods of the genera Proteus and Morganella
  44. Organisms that produce urease will
    break down the urea from the urea slant releasing ammonia which reacts with the pH indicator phenol red causing the slant to become alkaline resulting in bright pink color change
  45. urea color change
    • negative result - yellow - no urea
    • positive - bright pink
  46. urea hydrolysis test
    use urea slant - fishtail bacteria on top
  47. urea hydrolysis test bacteria
    • P. vulgaris - positive
    • E. coli - negative
  48. e coli
    • gram -
    • rod
  49. c rubrum
    • gram +
    • rod
  50. m luteus
    • gram + 
    • cocci
    • tetrad
  51. b subtilis
    • gram +
    • rod
    • chains or single
  52. a faecalis
    • gram -
    • rod
    • motile
  53. s aureus
    • gram + 
    • cocci
    • grape like clusters
  54. k pneumoniae
    • gram - 
    • rod
  55. s. salivarius
    • garm + 
    • cocci
  56. b cereus
    • +
    • rod
  57. e aerogenes
    • gram - 
    • rod
  58. p vulgaris
    • gram - 
    • rod
  59. blood - universal acceptor
    AB+
  60. blood - universal donor
    O-
  61. Blood types
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O

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