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The Self-fulfilling prophecy
- occurs when?
occurs when, without our awareness, schemas cause us to subtly lead people to behave in line with our expectations
What are the four basic steps to the self-fulfilling prophecy?
- 1) Adopt an attitude/ make decision concerning a person
- 2) behave as though your belief is correct
- 3) other person reacts to your behavior
- 4) the prophecy came true not because your belief was right but because you made the prophecy come true
What is attribution?
process people go to explain causes of behavior
what you attribute another person's behavior to
Internal vs. external behavior
- internal: characteristics of the person
- external: situational causes
Attitudes are very difficult to change. You can change them by taking two different routes.
1) Central route: based on facts and knowledge and info about it; you are knowledgeable about what you are saying
2) peripheral route: based on everything else, such as appearances
Cognitive dissonance theory says what?
we have attitudes, beliefs, and actions and we like them all to line up; the minute something is not lined up, there is great anxiety
belief that has no backing; general statement
attitude or feelign towards a group
action; treat them differently because of said belief
What is a way to remember what stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination are?
belief, feeliings/ attitudes, action
What are the three theories of prejudice?
motivational theory of prejudice
makes us feel better about ourselves; gives us higher self-esteem
cognitive theory of prejudice
we are prejudiced because we chunk people into groups so we can handle them and have an idea about them
learning theory of prejudice
we learn to be prejudice by watching others
this is how you can reduce negative feelings
the more you come in contact with people you are prejudice against, the more understanding you will become of them--> Jigsaw technique
The jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle.
What are the keys to attraction?
- 1) environment: proximity phenomenon-- you have to be near each other
- 2) similarity: balance and similarities to yourselves
- 3) physical attractiveness: matching hypothesis (most people find someone with a similar level of attraction to one another)
you lose yourself in a group / lose individuality
you exhibit less effort when working in a group than if you are on your own
What is compliance?
occurs when people do something because of a request
- explicit: asks you directly
- implicit: looks and gives you a cue
Inducing compliance--what are the three?
foot in the door: ask for something small; ask for something a little bigger and then bigger
door in the face: ask for something obnoxious, then apologize, and then ask for what you really want
low ball approach (bait-and-switch): get an oral commitment and then switch it on them and they will still do it
What is obedience?
involves a change in behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure (student and teacher); teacher shocking student
What was the Stanley Milgram experiment and what did it state?
Shock experiment where people were told to shock student
Stated that 1) humans are capable of unspeakable acts of brutality to other human beings just because they are being obedient and 2) they did it because they felt trapped; others felt that the person was powerful
What was Zimbardo's experiment
people become prisoner or guard and blend into roles
the more people that witness a crime, the less likely anyone is to help
What are the two major types of leadership?
- 1) task oriented: very strict, time sensitive, not well liked
- 2) persons oriented: likeable; foster responsibility; people listen when you yell
What is group think?
A group has decided upon the minimally acceptable solution without looking at potential problems
How do you combat group think?
- 1) get a devils' advocate to pick apart everyone's idea
- 2) use the anonymous method: type up ideas with no names attached
the more people there are in a group together, the more extreme their beliefs become