How am I doing?

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Author:
camturnbull
ID:
301219
Filename:
How am I doing?
Updated:
2015-04-21 08:42:39
Tags:
Psychology
Folders:
Psychology,Evidence & Enquiry
Description:
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  1. What is the above average effect?
    • Also known as illusory superiority 
    • A cognitive bias whereby individuals overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others
    • US college board (1976)-asked people to rate themselves on characteristics as above or below average
    • 70% of people rated themselves as having above average leadership qualities
    • Stevenson (1981) surveyed Swedish and US student drivers 
    • 93% of US and 69% of Swedish put themselves in the top 50% for driving skills
    • Wilson & Ross (2001)
    • P's rated themselves and an acquaintance at 2 points in time 
    • Rated themselves as significantly better than previously but not for their friends
  2. What is a self serving bias?
    • Any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem. When individuals reject the validity of negative feedback, focus on their strengths and achievements but overlook their faults and failures
    • 'I did badly because of other factors but I did well because I'm awesome'
    • Means we disassociate ourselves with the negative aspects of our lives (Weiner 1985)
    • See also: self handicapping (social psychology)
  3. What is naive realism?
    • Bias that assumes our actions are correct 
    • False consensus: overestimate how many people share your opinion or how many people do the bad things you do 
    • False uniqueness: underestimate the commonality of our positive traits (I'm uncommonly good at this)
  4. Who investigated naïve realism?
    • Ross et al (1977) 
    • P's asked to wear sandwich board and humiliating costume 
    • Asked what they thought of the others if they agreed and vice versa
    • People who agreed said the others were scared of embarrassment and weak 
    • People who refused said people who agreed were show-offs 
    • Whatever you choose is the right choice

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