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What is competency?
being able to achieve an income relative to the social norm of a minimally dignified lifestyle
What is independence?
Being able to provide the necessities of daily living for your family without the assistance of others
How was the poverty line defined back in the 1960s?
not being able to meet the needs for daily living defines those who are poor (the amount of money it takes to purchase the basic emergency food plan/nutrition to survive) and multiply by 3
Why is the definition of the "poverty line" potentially inadequate?
it does not account for the changes and purchasing methods that are used in today's families. Today a fifth of income goes towards food compared to a third back in 1950.
What is self-sufficiency?
having a minimally dignified lifestyle and being able to have some excursions beyond affording the basic necessities of life
What is poverty?
being barely able to provide the basic necessities of life without extra funds for life excursions
How does Schwarz define and "adequate job"?
the prime earner having a job that pays at least 7.60 an hour or more and offers year round full time work equal to 2000 hours during the year
Why is the unemployment rate an inadequate measurement of "opportunity"?
this rate also accounts for students therefore creating an imbalance between the available opportunity and those currently seeking employment
What is some basic information about poverty in the U.S.?
- poverty defined as having income less that 24,000
- between 46 and 77 million Americans are poor ( a majority of which are white and children)
- almost as many poor families headed by married couples as in families headed by single women
- only a minority of the poor live in the central cities of metropolitan areas
What are the main arguments behind the "culture of poverty" theory?
- brief childhoods
- early entry into sex and serious relationships
- predominance of female-headed households
- lack of privacy
- competition among family members
What are the conflict-oriented theories of William J. Wilson?
- due to the civil rights movement increasing life experiences of middle class African Americans economic restructuring occurred
- this led to high paying jobs moving to where the middle class moved and insufficient low wage jobs remaining with the lower class providing little to no chance for upward mobility and lack of necessary skills and transportation for better paying jobs leave them stuck in their poor circumstances
How did the New Hope Project address many of the problems with poverty?
- problems: lack of access to childcare, necessary transportation, job skills, and led to child behavioral problems
- solutions: provided employment opportunities, transportation and childcare services, job training, all leading to improvement in child academic performance
What is sex?
the biological characteristics that make up a man and a woman
What is gender?
the sociologically based traits and characteristics of a person's biological sex
What are the functionalist explanations for a gendered division of labor?
- men seen as breadwinner and therefore encouraged to stay in workforce to support the family through higher wages compared with women
- women seen as the caretaker/child-rearer and therefore encouraged to stay home to take care of the children and the house through lower wages compared with men
What are the conflict explanations for a gendered division of labor?
men are paid more for same job as women to try and drive the women out of the workforce (competition)
What are some statistics on the size of the gendered pay gap in the U.S.?
women earn 77 cents for every dollar that men earn therefore there is a 23 cent difference between the pay men receive compared to women
Why does the gender pay gap exist?
as a way of negatively discriminating against women
How is the gender pay gap persisting?
the earnings of men compared with women are not openly discussed therefore the gender pay gap is not always noticed
What is the difference between de jure and de facto segregation?
- de jure is segregation based how the law is established
- de facto is segregation based on how things actually are or exist
What is racism?
actions that favor one race or ethnic group over another
What is prejudice?
the beliefs and attitudes people hold toward a race or ethnic group
What is individual discrimination?
negative actions taken by an individual towards an individual based on their group affiliations or race
What is institutional discrimination?
negative actions taken by a group toward a group within an institution based on their group or racial affiliation
What is the relationship between prejudice and discrimination?
People can have negative/prejudicial thoughts without acting on them. Only when those thoughts are acted upon is it considered discrimination
What were the findings regarding the persistence of racial discrimination in labor and housing markets?
- labor market discrimination occurs mostly behind the scenes and therefore mostly unnoticeable
- housing market discrimination occurs mostly behind the scenes as well and therefore people are not aware of the discrimination occurring
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Becker's theory of discrimination?
- strengths: employers chose to discriminate based on personal prejudice and belief of what customers want
- weaknesses: predicted a decline in discrimination but discrimination has just become less visible
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Split Labor Markets?
- strengths: discrimination occurring due to conflict between competing groups of workers (whites demanding discrimination toward non-whites to protect their own jobs)
- weaknesses: non-white workers will eventually fight back after noticing discrimination towards them
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Marxist theory?
- strengths: discrimination prevents workers from allying with one another which keeps wages low to benefit the employer
- weaknesses: discrimination is dysfunctional because it doesn't allow functional hiring
How does gender, race, and class intersect to influence people's experiences in the housing market?
ascertain these three factors through how a person sounds over the phone (the way they talk/use words indicates class and race and how they sound indicates gender) identification of social status, race, and gender association. the intersectionality leads to discrimination