soil horizon description (lower case suffixes)
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horizon of secondary carbonate enrichment in which the concentration of CaCO3 exceeds that in the enriched parent material
eluvial horizon, showing losses (eluviation) of clay, organic matter, and Fe and Al oxides. It is used with an A horizon (Ae)
enrichment with Fe and Al oxides. It is used with B alone (Bf), with B and h (Bfh), with B and g (Bfg), and with other suffixes
gleyed horizon of gray color or mottling or both as a result of permanent or periodic intense anaerobic conditions. It is used with A and e (Aeg), with B alone (Bg), with B and f (Bfg, Bgf), with B, h, and f (Bhfg), with B and t (Btg), with C alone (Cg), with C and k (Ckg), and several others (Ccag, Csg, Csag).
enrichment with organic matter. It is used with A alone (Ah), or with A and e (Ahe), with B alone (Bh), or with B and f (Bhf or Bfh).
- denotes a ‘juvenile’ horizon. It is used as a modifier of suffixes e, f, g, n, and t to denote
- an expression of, but failure to meet, the specified limits of the suffix it modifies. For
- example, Aej is an eluvial horizon that is thin, discontinuous or slightly noticeable.
denotes the presence of carbonates, as indicated by visible effervescence when dilute HCl is added. Most often it is used with B and m (Bmk), or C alone (Ck), and occasionally with A and h (Ahk) or A and p (Apk), or organic horizons (Ofk, Omk).
modified horizon of slight development by hydrolysis, oxidation, and/or solution. It has a different colour and/or structure than the underlying horizon. It can be used as Bm, Bmgj, Bmk, and Bms.
presence of a high % of Na ions (ratio of exchangeable Ca to exchangeable Na is 10 or less). This leads to distinctive prismatic or columnar structure, dark coatings on aggregate surfaces, and hard to very hard consistency when dry. It is used with B alone (Bn), or B and t(Bnt).
a horizon disturbed by human’s activities, such as plowing, cultivation, logging, habitation, etc. It is used with A and O.
- accumulation of soluble salts including gypsum (CaSO4), which may be detected as crystals, veins, surface crusts, or by depressed plant growth, or by the presence of salttolerant plant species. It is commonly used with C and k (Csk) but can be used with any
- other horizon.
- secondary enrichment of salts more soluble than Ca and Mg carbonates (generally Na). The concentration of salts exceeds that in the unenriched parent material.
- ss – presence of several (more than two) slickensides (smooth shear clayey surfaces).
an illuvial horizon enriched with silicate clay (usually from Ae horizon above). It is used with B alone (Bt), with B and g (Btg), with B and n (Bnt), etc.
horizon affected by argillipedoturbation (disruption and mixing of soil as a result of shrinking and swelling of clays).
horizon affected by cryoturbation (mixing caused by freeze/thaw action) as manifested by disrupted and broken horizons and incorporation of material from other horizons. It is used with A, B, and C alone or in combination with other lowercase suffixes, e.g. Ahy, Ahgy, Bmy, Cy, Cgy, Cygj, etc.
a frozen layer. It may be used with any horizon or layer, e.g. Ohz, Bmz, Cz, Wz.
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