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The City of the Sun: Cahokia
- very large settlement site
- earthworks all over the U.S. already
- not burial mounds
- ceremonial complexes meant for displays and pubic events
- grows out of a process - has familiar connections with hopewell
Woodland Period (1000 BC-1000 AD)
☀refers to the eastern half of North America
☀Term initially applied to describe the introduction of ceramic technology until it was discovered that ceramics were being made in late archaic
☀woodland period in Southeast = called ceramic period
☀woodland period in Southwest = called basketmaker
Early Woodland (1000 - 1bc)
☀changes in ceramic technology emerges
☀from vegetable fiber tempers to sand and grog (grit) - more sturdier and stable than vegetable fiber
☀grog temper = grinding other ceramics to use as temper
☀investments in decoration. Fabric wrapped and carved wooden paddles used to impress the clay.
☀Trend towards sedentism and horticulture (swidden/slash and burn horticulture)
☀diet consists of nuts and wild foods
Middle Woodland (1 BC-500 AD)
- refers to Hopewell phenomenon
- more permanent settlements
- consists of circular arrangements of as many as twenty houses surrounding an open plaza
- houses typically circular, but not always
- introduction of palisades (fences/barricades)
- Intensification of horticultural exploitation.
- Introduction of corn
- Introduction of earthen and rock mounds(note relationship with Adena and Hopewell - part of the reason it is called the Hopewell interactive sphere)
- Platform Mounds more desired in the SE - platforms had building structures on the top used for public spectacles, ceremonies, etc
Late Woodland Period (500-1000 AD)
- Decline in long-distance trade in exotic goods - suggests that whoever was on top of the hopewell ladder was not as powerful as they once were
- Settlements more numerous but accompanied in reduction in size, suggesting dispersal of people.
- People moving away from the power structure in place, but occasionally come together around the platform mounds
- ceramics much more thinner and refined
- reduction in pointed technology
- Bow-and-arrow overtakes the atlatl and spear as tool/weapon of choice.
- Agricultural package (The Three Sisters)of maize, beans, and squash - potential to feed large amounts of people - sets stage for Mississippian period
The Mississippian Period (1000-1600AD):
Early Mississippian (1000-1200 AD)
- Rapid population concentration into larger central settlements
- this spawned from the late woodland period people are adopting these mass food surpluses to allow mass amounts of people to come together
Middle Mississippian (1200-1400)
- period where most major settlements such as moundville, cahokia, kincaid sites etc. flourish
- The (Southeast ceremonial complex) SECC - set of behaviors and materials that have a lot of the same iconographies or references such as imagery of feathered warriors, the underwater panther etc.Indicates that what is happening is of symbolic nature.
- Chiefdoms considered the apex of era due to the expansion of central ceremonial sites such as the ceremonial complex at Cahokia.
Late Mississippian (1400-1600AD)
Population dispersion and warfare.
The Kincaid Site (1000-1300 AD)
- located at southern tip of illinois
- explosion of public activity in middle Mississipian
- Consists of large settlements and 11 platform mounds with a plaza, creating semicircular shape with Palisades surrounding it (magnetometry has revealed as many as 19)
- Excavated by University of Chicago from 1934-1944 and today by Southern Illinois University - these dates predate radiocarbon dating, therefore dating kincaid sites were based on typology. Chronology was tested when C14 dating was established.
- Magnetometry - subsurface survey looking at differences in magnetism below the surface. It has revealed houses, footpaths, hearths, and courtyards.
- Mound 8 revealed a round structure 22meters in diameter, which if excavation reveals was roofed it will be one of the largest prehistoric roofed structures in the United States.
- Carved figurines in fluorite and charcoal link Kincaid with the SECC.
- Chunkey game (ca. 600 AD) - Played with Chunkey discs held by players in order for competitors to aim at them, but not to hit them, just get as close to them as possible.
- on national registry of historic places. Popular game continued after Mississippian period and through contact. reflects activities in plazas below the mounds.
Parkin Indian Mound (1350-1650)
- Located in Northeastern Arkansas
- Has settlement hierarchy connected by 21 dispersed settlements that feed into a paramount site.
- Towards the later phase,endemic warfare seems to be cause for people congregating at the site and building palisades.They are staying within these fortifications for safety, but still going out to cultivate their areas.
- Possibly the town of Casqui documented by Hernando de Soto (1496-1542)
Hernando de Soto
- traveled to the new world
- initially accompanied Pizarro
- most career spent in South America then returned to Spain a rich man
- he convinced Spanish crown to fund his expedition in which he decided to go back to explore North America
- He speculated that North America possessed the same chiefdoms in S.A that he could exploit.
- he set out onto south east united states to locate Native American groups.