Weathering and Soil

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Author:
morgansmash
ID:
301333
Filename:
Weathering and Soil
Updated:
2015-04-22 17:27:12
Tags:
geology
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Description:
geology test 3
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  1. the breakdown and decomposition of rocks
    weathering
  2. types of mechanical weathering
    frost wedging, salt crystal growth, sheeting, joints, biological activity
  3. caused by the expansion of water as it freezes
    frost wedging
  4. salt crystal growth
    occurs along shorelines and arid regions where salt is deposited
  5. exfoliation
    when the overburden is removed from a mass of igneous rock
  6. sheeting results in
    exfoliation domes
  7. any cracks which form in rocks
    joints
  8. living organisms are somehow involved in weathering
    biological activity
  9. types of chemical weathering
    dissolution, oxidation, hydrolysis, spherodial weathering
  10. water dissolving soluble minerals
    dissolution
  11. minerals that can be dissolved in water
    halite, calcite, gypsum
  12. rusting of iron-containing minerals
    oxidation
  13. minerals that contain iron
    amphibole, biotite, glauconite, magnetite
  14. iron oxidizes into
    hematite or limonite
  15. oxidation occurs after iron is released by
    hydrolysis
  16. hydrogen ions replace other positive ions in a mineral
    hydrolysis
  17. spherodial weathering
    jagged rocks become round
  18. warmer and wetter environments have (  ) weathering
    rapid
  19. the more different a rock is, the more (  ) its weathering will be
    rapid
  20. layer of solid rock beneath soil
    bedrock
  21. layer of soil and rock fragments above bedrock
    regolith
  22. layer of regolith that can support plant life
    soil
  23. soil is composed of
    mineral matter, voids
  24. voids contain
    air and water
  25. decaying plant and animal matter
    humus
  26. parent material
    the rocks weathered to produce the soil
  27. produced by weather of bedrock in that area
    residual soil
  28. soil produced in one location and transported to another
    transported soil
  29. layers or zones of distinct soil types
    horizons
  30. topsoil composed of
    O horizon, A horizon
  31. partly decayed plant matter at the surface
    o horizon
  32. high in humus with most soil organisms found here
    a horizon
  33. subsoil contains
    b horizon, roots, c horizon, immature soil
  34. zone of accumlation
    b horizon
  35. composed of bedrock in the process of weathering
    c horizon
  36. soil that doesn't have all of the soil horizons
    immature soil
  37. soil in arid and semi arid regions
    high in calcite, fertile
  38. soil in tropids
    infertile, high in iron oxides and aluminum

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