BRAE 340 Test 1

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Author:
kderaad
ID:
301336
Filename:
BRAE 340 Test 1
Updated:
2015-04-23 22:55:38
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BRAE 340 Test
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BRAE 340 Irrigation Water Management Test 1
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  1. Beneficial vs. Non beneficial uses of water
    • Beneficial: Crop ET
    • -Salt removal
    • -Climate control (wind erosion)
    • -Cultural practices (cover crops)
    • -Weed germination
    • Nonbeneficial: everything else
    • -excess tailwater
    • -excess deep perc.
    • -Phreatophyte ET
  2. Irrigation vs Application Efficiency
    • Irrigation: field, farm, district, basin
    • -strict accounting of water destinations
    • -single event, or annual
    • Application Efficiency
    • -field
    • -makes assumptions - Is the "target" met?
    • -Single event only
  3. Friction
    • not a component of energy it destroys energy
    • As flow rate decreases in a system, the friction decreases
    • Loss of energy as water flows due to water rubbing against walls
    • leads to loss of pressure
  4. Pressure
    • Force/Acea (PSi)
    • Head- pressure (expressed as height of water)
    • The force which is exerted upon an area
  5. Elevation
    Elevation effects pressure, nothing to do with friction
  6. 3 types of energy in water
    Elevation, Pressure, Velocity head
  7. California water use
    • Total use: 
    • -9% urban
    • -38% Agriculture
    • -38% Environmental
    • -15% Miscellaneous
    • Developed water supply
    • -19% Urban
    • -81% Agriculture
    • -100% Developed water supply = Ag + Urban
  8. Federal Projects
    • Central valley project
    • -lakes and canals
    • Coalinga Canal
    • Colorado River
    • Part of the Aqueduct
  9. State Water projects
    • Oroville dam & reservoir
    • Feather river project
    • North and south bay aqueducts
    • Delta Intake
    • CA aqueduct
  10. Local Water projects
    • SF- Bay area
    • -Mokelumme lake, Hetch-Hetchy
    • Southern CA
    • -LA adquate, CO river
    • San Diego aqueducts
  11. Population growth
    • will be Southern and Central California
    • More demands in urban water use, industrial water use,
    • recreation and environment become more important
    • More food needed, requires water
  12. Urban Water supplies
    • 20 million + get at least some water form the SWP
    • contracts to deliver 4 million acre-feet
    • can only deliver 2.4 in wet year and 1.1 in dry year
    • more storage needed
  13. Decline in ag irrigated area
    • was 10 million acres now 9
    • causes
    • -urbanization
    • -salinization
    • -increasing costs for water
    • -availability
  14. Ground water overdraft
    • Subsidence
    • dry wells- lower water table
    • salt water intrusion
    • toxic plumes
    • little or no ground water management legislation
  15. Water marketing/transfers
    • surplus water can be sold
    • can meet needs without new projects
    • Potential damage to in stream users
    • promotes excessive ground water pumping
    • water transfers are expected to play a significant role in meeting Ca future water needs
  16. Water conservation
    • Does work during drought
    • People don't want to conserve during wet years
    • decreased revenues for water agencies
  17. Drainage/selenium/Kesterson reservoir
    Drainage: Kesterson, San Luis Drain, Selenium
  18. Bay-Delta issues
    • State and federal pump water out of delta
    • supports agriculture
    • provides 60% of water in SF
    • Various quality issues
    • -minimum flows, salinity, temp
    • reverse flows
    • -more pumps
    • widening channels
  19. Surface irrigation
    • 45%
    • Furrow
    • Border strip
    • Level basin
    • high flow rate, use CFS doesn't take a lot of energy
    • Management Keys: uniform OT, quick advance, short runs, high flow rates, torpedoes, laser leveling
  20. Pressure
    • 20%
    • sprinkler
    • hand move
    • solid set
    • center pivot
    • linear moves
    • side roll
    • mid flow rate, 2-3 GPM per sprinkler and 45-60psi
    • Management keys: Appl. rate < infilt. rate
    • spacing/overlap
    • Adequate pressure
    • Limit pressure variations
    • Check nozzle wear, sizes
  21. Drip/Micro
    • Drip->Incline or online
    • Drip tape
    • SSDI (sub surface drip irrigation)
    • Micro sprayers
    • low flow rate, GPH 8-40 psi (low pressure)
    • Management Keys: 
    • Frequent, small applications
    • proper timing
    • high quality equipment
    • prevent clogging
    • -water treatment
    • -maintenance
  22. Head
    energy (or pressure) in water expressed as a height
  23. Critical flow devices
    • Weirs:
    • -Cipolletti weir (supressed or contracted)
    • For one flow rate, there is only one corresponding flow depth
    • Can have two different depths but same flow rate
    • Flumes: water surface elevation charges can measure head loss
  24. Headloss devices
    • submerged orifice
    • metergate
  25. Pipelines
    • Propeller meters
    • McCrometer magmeters: as fluid passes through the pipe, a voltage directly proportional to the flow rate is generated. Reading converted to rate of flow.
  26. Types of energy in water
    • elevation
    • pressure
    • velocity head

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