Lecture 16 Hematology

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Author:
leti563
ID:
301351
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Lecture 16 Hematology
Updated:
2015-04-23 03:10:24
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Hematology
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Physiology
Description:
Physiology Hematology
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  1. Components of Plasma
    92% WAter

    7% Plasma Proteins

    1% Other Solutes
  2. Formed Elements of Whole Blood (45 %)
    99.9% RBC

    <0.1 Platelets

    <0.1 WBC
  3. Plasma Proteins
    Albumins

    Fibrinogen

    Globulins
  4. Plasma (Other Solutes)
    Electrolytes

    Organic Nutrients

    Organic Waste
  5. WBC (Leukocytes)
    Neutroplils

    Lymphocytes

    Monocytes

    Eosinophils

    Basophils
  6. Leukocytes
    Immune cells

    Phagocytes

    Lymphocytes

    Granulocytes
  7. Phagocytes
    Engulf foreign particles


    Macrophages

    Monocytes

    Neutrophils
  8. Lymphocytes Job
    Specific to immunity
  9. Granulocytes
    Basophils

    Eosinophils

    Neutrophils
  10. Hematopoesis
    Cells commit to become one type of cell

    *Controlled by cytokines

    *Diff cytokines= different pathway
  11. 3 types of Hematopoesis
    *Colony stimulting Factors - Interleukins

    *TPO- Platelets

    *EPO- RBC's
  12. Colony Stimulating Factors CSF
    RELEASED BY CELLS IN BONE MARROW

    • *Leukopoesis
    •   -Cells can choose to replicate themselves
  13. TPO
    RELEASED BY LIVER

    *Makes stem cells commit to produce thrombocytes

    *Enhances production of megakaryocyte, which breaks apart and form platlelets.
  14. Erythropoetin EPO
    * Released by kidney in response to hypoxia

    *Cytokine/ Hormone  makes stem cell produce RBC
  15. Hematocrit
    RBC: Plasma

    *Measures exchange of gasses between lungs and capillaries.
  16. Hemoglobin Hb
    *Transport gases

    *Iron is absorbed in small intestine

    *Bound to plasma carrier protein called TRANSFERRIN  

    *Transferrin moves iron from blood to bone marrow.
  17. 3 Stages of Hemostasis
    Vascular spasm

    Platelet plug formation

    Coagulation
  18. Stage 1
    Vascular Spasm
    *Release of vasoconstrictive paracrines by damaged tissue

    *Smooth muscle constricts -> reduce bloodflow
  19. Stage 2
    Platelet Plug Formation
    *Endothelial cells are exposed to collagen

    • *Circulating platelets stick to collagen
    •   -Platelet & Collagen Synthesis --> PAF
    •     (Platelet activating factor)

    • PAF
    • 1) Positive feedback loop activates more platelets.
    • 2) Starts thromboxane (vasoconstrictor that Inscreases vascular spasm)

    • Increased platelet formation -> Temp platelet plug.
    •    - Positive feedbakckloop is limited, and cant attach to healthy cells. 


  20. Stage 3
    Coagulation Clot Formation
    1) Activation of Factor X enzyme (Released by damaged cells)

    2) Prothrombin --> Thrombin (Via Factor X)

    • Thrombin
    • --Converts Fibrinogen --> Fibrin

    • Fibrin
    • --Makes up forming clot (insoluble)

    •  |
    •  --> Thrombin
    •       *Activates Factor 13
    •  |
    •  --> Factor 13
    •        * Crosslinks Fibrinogen on platelet plug,            making it insoluble.   Thicker/Stronger.
  21. What stops positive feedback loop?
    Anticoagulant protein Heparin
  22. Aspirin Effects
    *Blocks platelet plug formation

    *Inhibits release of thromboxane (Vasoconstrictor)
  23. Warfarin/ Coumadin
    *Inhibits synthesis of Thrombin and other clotting factors.

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