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Components of Plasma
7% Plasma Proteins
1% Other Solutes
Formed Elements of Whole Blood (45 %)
Plasma (Other Solutes)
Engulf foreign particles
Specific to immunity
Cells commit to become one type of cell
*Controlled by cytokines
*Diff cytokines= different pathway
3 types of Hematopoesis
*Colony stimulting Factors - Interleukins
Colony Stimulating Factors CSF
RELEASED BY CELLS IN BONE MARROW
- -Cells can choose to replicate themselves
RELEASED BY LIVER
*Makes stem cells commit to produce thrombocytes
*Enhances production of megakaryocyte, which breaks apart and form platlelets.
* Released by kidney in response to hypoxia
*Cytokine/ Hormone makes stem cell produce RBC
*Measures exchange of gasses between lungs and capillaries.
*Iron is absorbed in small intestine
*Bound to plasma carrier protein called TRANSFERRIN
*Transferrin moves iron from blood to bone marrow.
3 Stages of Hemostasis
Platelet plug formation
*Release of vasoconstrictive paracrines by damaged tissue
*Smooth muscle constricts -> reduce bloodflow
Platelet Plug Formation
*Endothelial cells are exposed to collagen
- *Circulating platelets stick to collagen
- -Platelet & Collagen Synthesis --> PAF
- (Platelet activating factor)
- 1) Positive feedback loop activates more platelets.
- 2) Starts thromboxane (vasoconstrictor that Inscreases vascular spasm)
- Increased platelet formation -> Temp platelet plug.
- - Positive feedbakckloop is limited, and cant attach to healthy cells.
Coagulation Clot Formation
1) Activation of Factor X enzyme (Released by damaged cells)
2) Prothrombin --> Thrombin (Via Factor X)
- --Converts Fibrinogen --> Fibrin
- --Makes up forming clot (insoluble)
- --> Thrombin
- *Activates Factor 13
- --> Factor 13
- * Crosslinks Fibrinogen on platelet plug, making it insoluble. Thicker/Stronger.
What stops positive feedback loop?
Anticoagulant protein Heparin
*Blocks platelet plug formation
*Inhibits release of thromboxane (Vasoconstrictor)
*Inhibits synthesis of Thrombin and other clotting factors.