Lecture 17 Innate Immunity

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Lecture 17 Innate Immunity
2015-04-24 02:58:13
Immune system Innate Immunity
Immune System,Innate Immunity
Immune System Innate Immunity
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  1. Innate Immunity
    • *Present at birth
    • *Responds to many antigens from Pathogenic invaders
    • *Fast Response
  2. Acquired Immunity
    • *Present after being exposed
    • *Responds to specific invaders
    • *Can take days to respond
  3. Immune System Failure Pathologies

    Incorrect Response
    Autoimmune disease

    *Confuses "self" for "Non self" cells and attacks itself.
  4. Immune System Failure Pathologies

    Overreactive Response
    Excessive response

    *Ex: Allergies, bee sting
  5. Immune System Failure Pathologies

    Lack of Response (2 types)
    Failure to work properly

    • 1) Primary immuno deficiancy
    •    -Inherited
    •    -150 types
    •    -Ex: Inability to make neutrophils

    • 2) Acquired Immunodeficiency
    •    -Results from environment
    •    Ex: Infections, Drugs, Chemicals, Radiation.
    •           (HIV, AIDS)
  6. Primary Lymphoid Tissue
    • Found in thymus
    • -(Enlarges in adolescence, degenerates after)

    *Bone Marrow

    *Where immune cells are created, and mature.
  7. Secondary Lymphoid Tissue
    Found in Tonsils, GALT, BALT

    *Where mature cells interact w/ Pathogens and respond.

    *Divided in Encapsulated and unencapsulated tissue.
  8. Encapsulated
    *Spleen and Lymph Nodes

    *Spleen Monitors blood

    *Lymph nodes monitor plasma

    *Swelling of lymph nodes means Increased immune cells present to fight infection.
  9. Diffuse/Unencapsulated
    *Aggregation of immune cells

    *Found between external, and internal environments.

    Ex: GI tract, Skin, Resp tract, Urinary, Reproductive Tract.
  10. Basophil
    *Rare Granulocytes

    *Respond to allergies/ Release histamine/ Inflammation.

    *Intercept inhaled/ ingested/ absorbed pathogens.

    *Immobile ones are called mast cells.
  11. Eosinophils

    *Allergic rxns/ parasitic diseases

    *Can attach to Lg parasites, Release Chem to kill them.

    * Called Cytotoxic cells.
  12. Neutrophils
    *Phagocytic Granulocytes

    *Most abundant/ Shortest lived

    *Phagocytose Bacteria

    *Release Cytokines that cause fever.
  13. Monocytes/ Macrophages
    *Mono=Pre -----> Macro= post

    *Bonemarrow---> Specific Tissues

    *Macrophages= Garbage collectors in tissues.

    *Antigen Presenting Cells. (APC)
  14. Dendritic Cells
    *APC in skin/ Endotheleum/ GI Tract/Nasal Cavity.

    *Capture/ Phagocytose antiges and present to Lymphocytes.
  15. Lymphocytes  

    ~95% In Lymphoid Tissue ready to intercept.

    3 types of Lymphocytes

    • 1) Natural Killer Cell
    • 2) B Lymphocytes
    • 3) T Lymphocytes
  16. Natural Killer Cells
    Innate Immunity

    Attack Viruses

    Make cells commit suicide
  17. B Lymphocytes
    Acquired Immunity 

    Antibody protection   (APC)
  18. T Lymphocytes
    Acquired Immunity

    Fight Virus Infections
  19. Innate Immunity / Nonspecific
    *Recognixe and destroy broad range of foreign substances.

    *Clears infection until acquired response is initiated.
  20. Immune Response

    Phagocytosis  (4 steps,  4 substeps)
    1) Macrophages & Neutrophils recognize pathogen.

    2) PAMP bind to receptor on leukocyte membrane (PPR)

    3) Leukocyte is activated

    • 4) Activation of Leukocyte by PAMP releases cytokines. 
    •     -Increses Leukocytes at site of infection.

    • 1)PPR bind PAMP
    • 2)Leukocyte engulfs pathogen
    • 3)Pathogen is trapped in phagosome
    • 4)Lysosome bind to phagosome and destroy it.
  21. Immune response

    Natural Killer Cell
    *Targets cancer and virus cells

    • *Release chemicals (Interferons)
    •    -Interferons cause cells to kill themselves.

    **Destruction requires ACQUIRED immune response**
  22. Immune Response

    • 1) Attract more WBC
    • 2) Physical barrier, SLOW/STOP bacteria entry.
    • 3) Promote tissue repair.

    • 1)Attract WBC
    • 2)Increase Capillary permeability
    •    -Leads to release of histamine for swelling
    • 3)Localized fever- Bradykinin (Pyrogen- Chemical that causes fever)
  23. Sepsis
    Systemic wide infection.

    *Swelling prevents from getting to that point.
  24. Complement
    1) For encapsulated bacteria and protozoans.

    2) Lg # of Proteins

    3) Lipid Soluble proteins make a HUGE hole in the membrane and destroy separation between ICF & ECF.
  25. MAC
    • *Cascade of Proteins
    • *Attract WBC's
    • *Coat Pathogen targeting
    • *Release of cytokines
    • *Inflammation
    • |
    • ---> MAC