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And the first followers of
- The Apostles filled with the Holy Spirit, spoke in different tongues. Peter preached, 3000 people saved, on the day of Pentecost - 50 days in Greek- 50 days after Passover. Jews given law 50 days after the Exodus, 3,000 people died. At the beautiful gate, Peter and John heal lame man. Acts 5:12-16 they brought the sick out into the streets, so that at least the shadow of Peter would fall upon them, all were healed. The Holy Spirit fell upon the Gentiles. Shows that God kept his promise to Abraham. Peter and John in prison. Angel let them out. Steven stoned, was the first Christian martyr.
- c. A.D. 33. and following
Saul who was also called Paul
- Saul of Tarsus persecuted the believers was a devout Jew, son of a Pharisee, the most faithful Jews of the day. On his way to Damascus, bright light, herd a voice (Jesus), became blind, became a Christian. Pharisees shocked, Christians frightened, not sure of him. Escaped in a basket lowered over the city wall. Returned to Tarsus. Stayed for 10 years. Barnabas found Saul and took him to Antioch. Stayed for a year teaching. Saul and Barnabas go to Judea to relieve suffering brethren. Some believe name Paul used to signify the change in his life, others believe he took the name from one of his first converts, and some think Saul was his jewish name, and Paul was his roman name.
- c. A.D. 35
Paul's Missionary Journeys
- Paul and Barnabas were the first missionaries of Christ. Paul's First Missionary Journey traveled to nine cities with Barnabas. He taught in synagogues, performed miracles. Many believed. Mob threw stones at Paul untill they thought he was dead (Paul survived). Paul's Second Missionary Journey, traveled to twelve cities, traveled with Silas and Timothy, but not Barnabus. Paul healed slave girl, so the girl's owners got upset, so he and Silas were beatened and imprisoned. They a sang praises, then earthquake. The Jailer became a Christian. At Athens, Paul Taught at Mars Hill, many Greeks believed. Paul stayed in Corinth, making and selling tents with Priscilla and Aquila. Paul's Third Missionary Journey, At Ephesus, Demetrius the silversmith gathered a large crowd because he was losing money because he made idol. In Jerusalem the Jews wanted to kill Paul. Paul's nephew told Roman centurion, who helped Paul escape to Caesarea. There, Paul stood trial before Felix, Festus, and Herod Agrippa, who all found him not guilty. Paul requested that the emperor hear his case. Traveled to Rome, was shipwrecked. In Malta, he survived his poisonous snakebite, healed a man of a severe fever. In Rome, he was under house arrest. Died as a martyr under rule of Nero.
- c. A.D. 46-66
At age 17 became roman emperor. First humble and bothered by his first death sentence and the gladiators, but later developed cruel, selfish and paranoid disposition. Thought his mother was going to take his kingdom, his mistress Poppaea convinced him that it was true. Had his mother, his wife Octavia, half brother Seneca, and chief officer all killed. Hanged out in gangs, went to Greece, regularly performed Greek theatre, played the lyre, and chariot race. Publicly whined about the layout of the city, little room to build new palaces. Rome burned as he played the lyre by his window, blamed fire on the Christians. Said they drank human blood and ate human flesh (came from the bread and wine) had Peter and Paul killed. Christians hid in catacombs. Rome hated Nero, wanted to kill him, Nero tried to kill himself, his assistant did it for him.A.D. 37-68
•First Wave of Christian Persecution:By Emperor Nero, had Peter and Paul Killed•Second Wave Of Christian Persecution:By Emperor Domitian who wanted to be worshiped, John refused, exiled to isle of Patmos.•Third Wave Of Christian Persecution:Under Emperor Trajan, had Ignatius thrown to the lions in the colosseum. Symphorosa and seven sons perished. Faustines and Jovita killed. Polycarp bound to stake and burned alive. Emperor Antonius Pius stopped persecution• Fourth Wave Of Christian Persecution:Under Marcus Aurelius, Romans Chant the Christians to the lions. Justian Martyr (where the term martyr originated) a philosopher, died. Blandina a slave girl said " I am a Christian, among us no no evil is done".30 years later......•Fifth Wave Of Christian Persecution:Perpetua and Felicites Died • Sixth and Seventh Waves Of Christian Persecution:Christians Tortured • Eighth Wave Of Christian Persecution:Cyprian of Carthage beheaded for not sacrificing to Emperor Valerian"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." - Tertullian c. A.D. 64-257
- Josephus and Nero contemporaries. Josephus was a serious student. At age 16 he studied the 3 sects of Judaism - Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. When he was 19 he joined the Pharisees. Took a trip to Rome Thought the Jews would not stand a chance against Rome. Jews rebelled against Romans. Josephus was the commander of the Galileans. Forced to surrender, Josephus was imprisoned. When Vespasian, a friend of Josephus, became emperor, he set him free. He was employed by Vespasian's son - Titus Flavius - as an interpreter and meditator. Jews wanted to revolt again, Josephus tried to persuade them not to. At the end of the first Jewish revolt, Jerusalem destroyed, temple obliterated. Diaspora: Jews scattered to other countries. Josephus adopted Titus's family name- Flavius. Best Jewish Historian that ever lived. Wrote the Works Of Josephus.
- A.D. 66
Fortress on a steep plateau in Israel. Zealots (sicarii, or daggermen) fled during First Jewish Revolt. They found Masada. Herod the Great lived there as a boy, used in wars with the Parthians, later Herod made it a stronger fortress. Had cisterns and storehouses to hold many years worth of food and rainwater. The Zealots under Eleazar Ben Yair took Masada. When the Emperor found out that nearly 1,000 Jews were at Masada, he sent 20,000 soldiers to Masada. The soldiers built a dirt ramp, and brought a battering ram up the ramp. They knocked out the outer wall, but then the ramp collapsed. 960 Jews commit suicide. Romans find Masada empty. Now soldiers swear allegiance to Israel at Masada. A.D. 66-73
In 1947 Bedouin Shepherd boy exploring caves near Dead Sea, discovered hundreds of parchments: The entire Old Testament except Esther, The Apocrypha, and the records of the customs of the people who wrote these documents - The Essenes. They may have sprung from the Maccabees. The Essenes lived far away from cities, their library located at Qumran, near limestone cliffs and fossil beds of the dead sea. Most writings in Hebrew, but also in Aramaic and Greek. Scrolls well preserved due to the dry air of the region. Written on calfskin, sheepskin, papyrus & parchment. 200 - 400 people lived in Qumran, they raised sheep and cattle, farmed, and made date honey. They also had a potters shop and tannery (where leather is made). The Essenes may have left Qumran because of earthquakes or maybe because of the Romans.c. 100 B.C. - c. A.D. 75
August 24, A.D. 79 - Pompeii undergoing elections, traded with Egypt and Spain. (in A.D. 62 there was an earthquake.) Vesuvius - a volcano, looked peaceful. Contents of the mountain blew 12 miles high in the sky. Pumice fell back to earth, most of the debris stayed in the sky. 10 times stronger than Mt. St. Helens. Smoke blocked out the sun, indoors people thought it was an earthquake, outdoors people fled, but 2,000 residents died. Ash fell from the sky and suffocated hundreds of others who died in the avalanche of hot air and gases. 1700's found the city undisturbed, people in exact positions that they perished. Locals called it civitas, ancient city in Latin. A.D. 79⚡
Bar- Kokhba When Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70 Emperor Hadrian had another city built on top and named it Aelia Capitolina ( after himself, his middle name was Aelius.). He built a temple for jupiter on the spot where the temple had been. Bar-Kokhba (name means "star") was a powerful military leader, called himself Prince of Israel. He raised an army of 400,000 men. The qualification for being in his army : cut off part of your finger. Legend claims that he stopped a cannonball with his leg and kicked it back at the enemy. He was strict- threatened to punish if did not do exactly what he said. He claimed to be the Messiah, a priest believed and convinced others. For a time Jewish State established, regained Jerusalem, new coins. Romans attack city of Bethar, 80,000-580,000 Jews killed, holy books burned, Bar-Kokhba died. Jews felt betrayed. Hecklers changed letter in his name to give meaning of liar. Yigael Yadin found letters written by Bar-Kokhba to generals, titled Bar-Kokhba as President of Israel. A.D. 135
The Apostles Creed
Apostles Creed - Christians felt it necessary to write basis of their faith. Creed - statement of beliefs, comes from Latin word credo meaning " I believe". Written only 100 or more years after Jesus taught.c. A.D. 150
- Two Christian men named Valentine who live around Rome in the third century who were both martyred on February 14, A.D. 269. one beheaded in Rome and was a priest, church built in his honor, the other died in Interamna, a town 6 miles from Rome. Little known about the second Valentine, some scholars think there was only one Valentine and that the church records got mixed up. Feb. 15 - Lupercalia - Romans honor juno (goddess of women and marriage) and pan (god of nature), young men and women draw names for a partner, spend time and exchange gifts, cupid believed to be involved. Cupid : "god of love" soon of venus "goddess of love, it was thought that a shot of cupids arrows make someone fall in love.💘 495 - Pope Gelasius declares February 14 as St. Valentines Day to replace Lupercalia. The two holidays eventually blended.
- A.D. 269
Diocletian Divides the Roman Empire
- Between Marcus Aurelius and Diocletian, 28 men tried to be emperor and none of them lasted very long. Diocletian: the army voted him emperor. He decided the Roman Empire was too big for one person to rule. Gave western half to Maximan. They called themselves Augusti, and the men serving under them Caesars. He also divided the halves into smaller parts: Prefectures (ruled by prefects), Dioceses (ruled by vicars), and provinces (ruled by governors). Rome was divided into 120 provinces. Made more gold and silver coins, which caused inflation. Made limits on Howard much money a man could make. Food was scarce. Taxes went up, the population went down. Gave himself and Maximan the title Dominus Noster (Meaning "Our Lord"), Christians not comfortable with calling them their lord. Diocletian demanded to be worshiped as jupiter. A man named george refused, put to death on April 23, 303. Diocletian destroyed all copies of scripture he could find, and the Christian village of Phrygia was burned.🔥
- A.D. 284 - 305
and the Edict of Milan
- For three centuries after the resurrection, Christians were persecuted. Constantine I, also called Constantine the Great, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, officially brought persecution to an end. In 312 beat Maxentius in the battle of Milan Bridge. The arch of Constantine built to remember the victory. During this battle supposedly saw vision of a cross in the sky with the Latin words: In hoc signo vinces, meaning: In this sign you shall conquer. Later supposedly saw vision of Christ, and had a dream, saw Greek letters chi and rho first two letters of the word christos. Viewed Christianity with the greatest respect, using the cross and letters as his battle symbol. In 313, signed the Edict of Milan, a document that ensured freedom for all Christians. Constantine was not baptized until near his death. Defeated Castern, Eastern Emperor in 324. Then he moved the roman capital to the ancient city of Byzantium (Now Istanbul) which sits at the entrance to the black sea. Constantine named it New Rome, but quickly became known as Constantinople. Constantine invited 300 bishops to The Council Of Nicaea. Nicene Creed written, says Jesus is the same as God, a great lie.
- India's Golden Age- Gupta Dynasty, Most Famous Gupta Leader was Samudragupta who reigned as king of India for 50 years, moved the capital, expanded the empire, sponsored work of scientists, artists, and architects, was a great poet, and a musician. In the Golden Age, good astronomy and chemistry. Superb iron making (an iron pillar in Delhi over 1,900 years old still stands untarnished.).Created Arabic numbers, concept of zero, decimals, and Algebra. Beautiful and comfortable cloth, first used cotton, terms muslin and calico. Two most famous works of indian literature: the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Hinduism flourished, Age also known as the Classical Hindu Period. Traditions passed down in form of hymns and writings called Vedas.
Lived in Mexico and Central America. May have come from Asia to America on land bridge (now Bering Strait). For centuries they lived as hunters and gatherers, then the Classical Period. Developed zero, they were masters of astronomy, children homeschool, formal school for nobility. Written language- a form of hieroglyphs, wrote on pots, pillars, murals, and in books. Art - bright colors. Pyramids. Worshiped gods of nature- rain, sun, corn, soil, everything descended from the sun and the moon, practiced human sacrifice. Later adopted worship of Kukulcan (was a feathered serpent) from Mexico. Most people farmers living in small villages. Crude form of basketball - ball couldn't touch the ground, one score game over. Clothes - colorful and showy. Then, the Maya vanish. possibly due to crop failure, disease, and economic problems. Millions of people in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize claim to be modern Maya, actually a blend of peoples.
St. Augustine Of Hippo
- Born in North Africa, his mother Monica, christian. His Father Patricius, Pagan. They sent him to school in Carthage. Mastered rhetoric. Said that christianity was for the simple minded. Studied all kinds of philosophies trying to find the answers in life. Moved to Milan where he met Ambrose, bishop of Milan, who had strong faith and was not simple minded. They became friends. Made him examine his own life and beliefs. Became a believer, and he and his son were baptized. Became bishop of Hippo (Now Annaba, Algeria) wrote a book called Confessions, and later wrote On the trinity, and the City of God. The city he lived in was under siege, was killed in an attack. Martian Luther and John Calvin used his writings as basis for their ideas. Group of monks used his name to identify themselves.
The Holy Bible and the Vulgate by Jerome
- Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. In 393, church officials standardised the books of the New Testament in a meeting at Hippo. Great need for Bible to be translated into Latin. Jerome's Latin Bible also called the vulgate, (means common) was written in Latin so that the common man could read it. Jerome, a monk, Bishop Damascus challenged him to translate the bible. 23 year project in a cave. First named the Apocrypha.
St. Patrick Missionary to Ireland
- Patrick was born c. 389 in a region of Great Britain (under roman rule). He was not Irish, was of Celtic descent from Wales or Scotland. His parents strong Christians (unlike him). At age 16 kidnapped by Irish Pirates. Was sold and was a slave for six years. He took care of pigs. He became a Christian, and prayed for freedom. Ran 200 miles to sea. Found a ship with a captain willing to take him aboard. Made it back to Great Britain. Had strange dreams: Irish children calling him back to Ireland. After training as a minister in France he did. For nearly 30 years preached in Ireland. Ireland ruled by tribal chiefs who fought each other. Irish superstitious, religion of druids - worshiped sun, moon and stars, Halloween. Other missionaries failed. But Patrick found it easy. Used shamrock to symbolize trinity 🍀(false idea). Irish loved Patrick. "Found Ireland all heathen and left it all Christian". Started c. 300 churches, baptized 120,000 people. Miracles? Did not die a martyr's death. (died naturally in 461)
- c. 389 - 461
- The Huns were nomadic people who invaded Europe from somewhere in central Asia. Short, thick people with flat noses and pig eyes. Parents scarred their children's faces to tolerate pain. 😰Relied on horses for their livelihood. Attila the Hun: Romans and Germans who feared him nicknamed him "Scourge of God". Eastern Roman Emperor, Theodosius II paid Attila tribute in order to make peace. Attila decided to see what he could gain from the Western Roman Empire. Received tribute and a gift of land south of the river Danube. Blasted through Gaul (later known as France) ransacking towns and cities by killing men and capturing women (Was merciful to those he captured and treated them fairly).
- June 451 Romans and Visigoths (Germanic Tribe) Had enough of him and joined forces in the battle of Chalons-Sur Marne. 162,000 men died on the battlefield including the King of the Visigoths. Attila survived, moved south to conquer Italy. Somehow a church leader talked him out of it. Headed back to where he came from. Died from a ruptured blood vessel.
Rome Ruled almost all of Europe, parts of the Middle East, and the North Coast of Africa. They claimed the Mediterranean Sea, and called it Mare Nostrum (meaning "Our Sea"). The huge size of Rome may have had something to do with it's fall. It became harder and harder to find enough soldiers to defend all of its conquered territories. The Empire began to Hire "Barbarians" ("Ignorant One" refers to non-Romans) as soldiers. Cost a lot to hire outsiders, to pay, Government raised taxes and devalued money. Many people left the cities and headed to the country. Tribes outside of Rome were looking for places to live. The Angles moved to what is now England, The Jute and Saxon tribes joined them. (Anglo-Saxons, blend of these people, most of the English language from these people. The Franks under King Clovis (who became a Christian) took Northern Gaul, Became France. The Goths also Germanic also invaded the Roman Empire. The Visigoths (Western Goths(the Ostrogoths were the Eastern Goths)) helped Rome fight Attila and were given a small part of Rome. Later they stormed Italy and sacked Rome. The Vandals (another Germanic Tribe) ripped Rome apart with looting and violence. Instead of coming north as expected, attacked from the south. Thousands of Romans taken as slaves, population dropped from 1,500,00 to 300,000. Vandals stole from Romans what
The Dark Ages, or the early middle ages, ordinary homes dark, damp, drifty, made of wood, house fires often because fires always lit for cooking, heating and to keep away flies. Hardwood furniture, straw mattress, wool blanket. Home also the stable : stank, poorer homes no toilet, nicer homes toilet seat, waste to lower room, regularly shoveled. Diet: Bread served morning noon and night. Dinner Soupy stew. Wealthy ate meat, eggs and cheese. Water and milk not safe, drank weak ale or beer. Special occasions, pies popular. Poor girls learn skills of farming, cooking, storing food and cleaning at home from mother. Wealthy girls learn how to take care of household, math, reading, entertainment, dancing, singing, sewing, and riding horses. Peasent boys learn to farm and fight from their dads, uncles and brothers. Merchant's son attended school to learn reading and math. Noblemen's sons, private tutoring. 80% of europe's population in the Dark Ages were peasant farmers, Serfs- lowest of peasants, worked for lord or duke and received food, clothing, and protection, no money pay. if escaped for year and day, free. above serfs, villeins: freer than serfs, controlled a plot of land, but did not own it, had to pay landowner the food they grew, difficult to rise from being a poor farmer. todays term villain comes from this class of unrespected people. Merchents and Craftsmen - rented two story apartments from nearest lord. lived upstairs, worked downstairs, common sight in Europe today. townspeople created guilds - groups of people with the same trade. to become part of a guild, became an apprentice at age 7 to a master, apprentice given food and lodging, later became a jurneyman, who was paid, who eventually could open their own shop to sell his goods and if especially successful, became a master. Doctors believed that drilling holes in someones head would relieve symptoms of mental illness (without any anesthetics) and removing "bad blood" with leeches or "bloodletting" (cutting patient to drain "bad blood") would cure diseases. Barbers also in the business of bloodletting, because they owned sharp instruments, barber pole is a symbol of bloodletting white stripe bandage, red stripe blood. Parish Church in nearly every medieval village, most patterned after a roman structure called a basilica (rectangular building used as courthouses or meeting halls.). The parish priest lived near the church in an home like a serfs cottage. preached on sundays, kept an eye on everyone's moral behavior, took care of sick, and arranged town games. above parish priest was a bishop, lived in a larger town and managed the diocese (several parishes) took the role of an roman governor. overseed church business, settled court cases, and gave direction in military affairs, lived in nice quarters, and his church was like a small cathedral. next level archbishop: ruled the province, lived in a big city, great authority, cathedrals of gothic architecture like the Notre Dame in Paris France. in 5th century Emperor Valentinian III decided archbishops should be in obedience one head bishop, The Bishop Of Rome, who from then on was called the Pope (meaning papa)
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
- c. 600 B.C. - a group of people called the celts lived in Europe. Were known for being artistic, brave, and goo iron makers. 550 years later, Romans invaded England under Julius Ceasar they called them "Brythons" meaning "tattooed men" (this roman term is how Britain got it's name) Roman rule for 300 years, lived in peace with the celts, and built roads, bathhouses, and homes with central heating and glass windows. Emperor Hadrian built a great wall in Northern England to protect it from the scottish. in late 400's romans fled and celts could not protect themselves from the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. King Arthur- a celtic king (or war chief) during the saxon invasion. legend of Arthur becoming king - sword in the stone, who ever removed the sword became the next King of England. Arthur did so instead of running home to get the sword and became king. Merlin - his childhood teacher (legend he could turned people into animals) helped Arthur make a round table, so knights wouldn't argue who was seated next to the king. fought twelve battles against the saxons, last one called battle of Mount Badon, in 503. almost always victorious. (from these victories, evidence of of a true war hero named arthur, the Dux Bellorum (means Lord of the Battles), though never king, inspired all the legends and folklore that followed.) Religious zeal common among the knights, swore oath to uphold christ and keep down the heathen. Holy Grail- (Grail- old english word for cup) according to tradition, Joseph of Arimathea accuired the cup Jesus used at the last supper, and used it to collect some of Jesus's blood. Joseph did go to England, and supposedly taken the cup with him. Legend has it that a nun had a vision of the Holy Grail and told the knights of the round table, believing the Holy Grail had special powers, the knights set out on a to find it, known as the Quest for the Holy Grail. supposedly the would give the finder eternal life. Sir Galahad, Sir Percivale, and Sir Bors found the Grail. Arthur's queen Guinevere fell in love w/Sir Lancealot, Guinevere sentenced to burn at the stake, lancelot rescued the queen. in the end the both repented and queen left to live with the nuns. The knights wanted war against lancelot, shattering Arthurs dream of a peaceful kingdom. Arthurs only son Mordred, tried to take the kingdom, forced to fight his son. Mordred died in battle and Arthur wounded and taken to the isle of Avalon for healing, supposedly never died and will return again to rule England.
Justinian I and Theodora Rulers of the Byzantine Empire
- Byzantine Empire - Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantine named after Byzantium, the ancient city renamed Constantinople. Justinian born of a peasant family, his uncle was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire, had no sons, so took Justinian to be trained as a ruler. Was moved to the East and declared Emperor of the Byzantine. loved to study (intrested in law, poetry, architecture, theology, philosophy, and music. diet mainly vegetarian. His wife was theodora - born on the island of cyprus the daughter of a bear trainer in the circus. later went into acting, had a child, though not married. made a living spinning wool in Constantinople. Met Justinian, and fell in love. beautiful and smart. Riot in Constantinople between “Greens” and “Blues” (Groups dressed in colors of favorite Jockeys). Fires broke out and a famous church named Saint Sophia destroyed and the place attacked, people ran in the streets shouting “Nika” meaning victory known as Nika Riot. Justinian hid. Theodora persuaded him to take control of the situation. he put his best general Belisarius, on the Job. Belisarius had 30,000 people killed in the public arena, which ended the riot. Justinian rebuilt the Saint Sophia, one of the greatest works of Byzantine Architecture ever constructed. updated the code of laws and are called Justinian Code.
- 527 - 565
Columba, Missionary to Scotland
- Columba was born in Ireland, went to monasteries and set up a few of his own across Ireland. Name meant dove. Had dispute w/chieftain, led to battle 3,000 men killed, felt sorry, resolved to convert as many men to Christ as had died in the battle, and He also vowed never to return to Ireland. Left, and went to Scotland in a currach (a hide covered sea vessel), landed in Iona, a tiny island of the west coast of Scotland. wanted to befriend the picts, (roman): “painted people”) fierce, other Scotts feared them, and hoped that Columba would convert them to christianity. The Picts leader, Brude, wanted nothing to do with columba or christianity, and bolted his village gates. Columba made a sign of a cross on the locked gates and they flew open. Got Bruce's attention & and he listened to Columba’s message, and nearly all the Picts became followers of Christ. Columba set up more monasteries in Scotland, his greatest influence was serving as the abbot of a large monastery in Iona. Columba converted 46 scottish kings and at least 3,000 people. Important services of monastery, copying bible, used beautiful illuminated letters (first letter on the page bigger and elaborately decorated.).
Early Japan and Prince Shotoku
- Japan : an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean just off the coast of China, the four main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku. Actually 4,223 islands make up Japan (600 of them are inhabited). The Japanese call the islands nippon (meaning source of the sun), we call them Japan, a shorted version of the name cipango, the name Marco Polo used for the islands. The early Japanese (who still live in Northwest Japan) were the Ainu, they were short, stout people with white skin, circular eyes, thick noses and lots of hair, modern Japanese people are taller, thinner, with white skin, almond shaped eyes, slender nose and little body hair. In Early world history, people from China and Korea, came to Japan and pushed the Ainu people to one corner of the country. Since then they have blended to make the Japanese we know today. One of the first Japanese Emperors was named Jimmu Tenno c. 600 B.C. and was supposedly descended from sun goddess. Even though emperor, most of Japan led by clan leaders who fought each other. until year 400, when Yamato clan gained control over other clans. Since then, imperial rulers of Japan are claimed descendants of Yamato Clan. Shinto - “way of the gods” earliest religion of Japan, holds that Kami is sacred energy behind everything. Followers offer gifts to appease the forces of nature and countless numbers of spirits. Shinto holds no formal doctrine, no fancy rituals, no priests, and no teachings of heaven or hell. requires complete loyalty to the emperor. No other country has adopted shinto because it claims that Japan alone was created a sacred place and that Japanese alone are sacred people. in 573 Prince Shotoku Taishi brought Buddhism to Japan. he spread Buddhism across Japan by building Buddhist Monasteries and temples. He probably got it from China. Shotoku promoted Buddhism , was considered a great humanitarian by his people and was widely respected. also wrote history, painted pictures, and oversaw the building of the Horiuji temple. wrote constitution for Japan, idea of central government. “Founder Of Japanese Civilization” after his death (in 621), reform called the Takia from what Shotoku started. Takia- All land belong to Emperor, taxes directly to him. in 747 Building of Daibutsu in Nara - Big Buddha.
Gregory The Great
- Gregory I - Gregory the Great, Pope - "visible head" of the catholic church. Catholics believe Peter to be the first pope. They say there has always been a pope since peter and that the chain has never been broken. the first ones were called bishops, but in the fifth century, the word pope was used to designate the head of other bishops, The Bishop Of Rome. Gregory - born in a wealthy family, inherited a lot of money and a palace from his parents, became mayor of Rome. disliked politics, believed the world was soon to come to an end, turned his palace and Monastery of St. Andrew and became a monk. Wanted to become a missionary, but was never given permission to leave Rome. When Pope Pelagius II died in 590 Gregory was to fill the position. Did not want to become Pope. Decided to become pope only if he could keep the simple lifestyle of a monk. Gave riches of the church to the poor. used the rent money from the church to fight the invading lombards. Sent Augustine of Canterbury to England to preach to the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, because he could not leave Rome. Also sent missionaries to Sicily, Sardinia, and Lombardy. Gave food, clothing, and money to poor. wrote letters of encouragement, training manuals for bishops and also wrote about Angels & Demons, and Job. Gregorian Chant named after him. last years spent in much pain. died in 604.
The Sui and Tang Dynasties of China
- When the Han Dynasty collapsed in A.D. 221, there was no strong family to replace them. States fought for 370 years, Then Yang Jian started the Sui dynasty in 589, took the northern China, then conquered southern China. He lowered taxes, and let men serve in the army for a shorter time. The next Sui Emperor Yang Guang, oversaw building of the Grand Canal, from Hangchow in the south, to Peking in the North. Yang Guang expected people to pay their taxes 10 years ahead so he could build parks and palaces with it. The people of China rebelled, and had him killed. When the Sui Dynasty was collapsing, Li Yuan saw it as an opportunity to rise to power, so he started the Tang dynasty. Lasted for 300 years, ushered in the Golden Age of China. His son Li Shi Min tried to conquer the surrounding countries by bloodshed, then studied teachings of Confucius, had a big impact on him. Lived modestly, ruled fairly, and turned down luxuries available to him. Had 290 men who were condemned to die to go work in the fields without supervision for a day, if they promised to return. At the end of the day they all came back to prison. Li Shi Min freed all of them. Remained faithful to Confucius's teachings, but welcomed Christians, Buddhists, and Muslims into his kingdom. Built capital of Chang'an (now xi'an). Wu Zetian was his Concubine. Fireworks invented.
- 589, 618
and the Birth of Islam
Muslims - Muslims - followers of Islam, started by Mohammed - born in Mecca, a city in the Arabian Peninsula, grew because it was a great stop for traders. Mohammed's Uncle was a Sheik (Tribal Cheif). Mohammed spent his youth tending sheep and camels and could not read or write. Was influenced By Christian and Jewish traders who told him about there being one God. Kaaba- black square temple in Mecca, 360 gods worshiped. Worshippers march around it and kiss black stone in wall. Mohammed at age 20 got a job helping Khadijah (a widow) who was 15 years older. They married a few years later. At age 40 claimed to hear an angel (first taught he was hearing a jinn or jinni (thought to be between an Angel and an Man)) who supposedly told him that there was only one god, Allah. Allah-Tallah was name of one of the gods worshiped in the Kaaba, idea of Allah did not start with Mohammed. Over the years, claimed to have more revelations from Gabriel. Did not write them down, but memorized them. After his death. After his death his followers wrote them downin the Koran - the holy book of Islam. Mohammed converted Khadijah his wife, his cousin Ali, his servant Zaid, and his father in law Abu Bekr to Islam. The people of Mecca did not like the idea of one god because they made money from selling sacrifices for their many gods. Quarish tribe made enemies with Mohammed, and tortured his poorer converts. Mohammed's wife and his good friend died the same year. He tried to move to another village but forced out, returned to Mecca and married 2 more wives claimed he was taken from his sleep to Jerusalem on a winged horse and transported the wailing wall and returned to his bed in mecca the same night, he claimed Jerusalem as a holy site to Muslims. He frequently visited the city of Madina to preach his revelations, merchants there liked him and invited him to live there. Even the Jews of Medina thought he was a decent man & didn't think he would be a threat to the Jews. Mohammed stayed at Mecca for two more years. Quarish leaders plotted to kill him, Mohammed hid in caves, spider web in caves entrance undisturbed, Quarish didn't think he was there. Spider sacred symbol of Islam. Mohammed fled from Mecca to Medina in 622, the trip, Hegira is important to Muslims. He had caravans that came through medina, robbed to feed his people, faught bands of citizens of Mecca who where still upset with him. Promised his followers paridise for fighting for him. Singed 10 year peace treaty with Mecca. Broke it after two years. Mohammed's First Jihad (Holy War) no war at all, most of Mecca switched loyalty. At Kaaba Mohammed declared that there is only one god- Allah, and forbade the worship of other gods or Idols, but allowed tradition of kissing and worshipping black stone. He also declared that for then on, Muslims should face Mecca when they prayed, and no unbelievers could set foot in Mecca. Mohammed claimed to be the Messiah, Jews didn't like it. 600 Jewish men killed by Mohammed. He died at age 62 in 638.
The Spread Of Islam
After Muhammad's death in 632, his teachings were growing in appeal to the nomads of Arabia. Mohammed taught them to treat one another fairly, especially servants and women (though not seen today), he promoted the idea of honest brotherhood, respect for ones parents, and forbade the killing of baby girls, and forcing a camel to die with its master. He also taught good hygiene, protection of the weak and sick, and discouraged drinking alcohol. Islam means, "submission to god" and Muslim means "submissive one". Muslims say they are "submitting to the will of Allah" by keeping these 5 duties: 1. Praying five times a day 2. Reciting the creed "There is no god but Allah, an Mohammed is his prophet" at least 125,000 times in ones lifetime 3. Giving to the poor 4. Fasting from sunrise to sundown on the holy month of Ramadan 5. Making at least one trip to Mecca (if able). Muslims believe after death either paradise or a burning inferno is waiting for each person. Muslims believe : 1. There is no god but allah 2. There are angels that intercede for men 3. The koran is the last testament given by god 4. There were several prophets of allah including Noah, Moses, Abraham,Jesus, and Mohammed. 5. There is judgement for all mankind 6. There are divine decrees to follow in this life as dictated by Mohammed in the Koran. The Koran - Islam's holy book or book of recitations, was ordered to be written down by mohammed's friend Abu Bekr, about a year after Mohammed died. There are 144 suras (chapters) in the Koran. The writings are very poetic and use lots of imagery. The Koran speaks of bolth Jews and Christians. Muslims consider Jews and Christians "Peoples of the Book" since Moses and Jesus received books of revelation. Buddah is not mentioned. Muslims believe Jesus was a prophet, but not the son of God. The Koran contains no prophecy. Muslims believe angels exist to intervene with mankind, and believe 8 angels guard the throne of god, and 19 angels guard hell. They believe that Jinn and Jinni are spirits between angels and mankind. They believe some are good and some are bad. The most powerful is thought to be the develop, shaitin. A muslim place of worship is called a mosque. When Mohammed died in 632, there was the question of who would follow him in leading the new religion and theocracy. Mohammed had 10 wives but no done. He did have a daughter named Fatima who was married to his adopted son and cousin Ali. Ali wanted to b e the first caliph (from arabic word Khalifa, meaning successor) Abu Bekr became the first caliph. The disagreement over leadership lead to years of war. For a time Ali became caliph, but was assassinated after five years. Despite this, Islam spread like wildfire to neighboring countries.
Wu Zetian The Empress of China
- At birth given name Wu Zhao, at age 14 renamed Mei-Niang (meaning "charming or sultry lady"), but she renamed herself Wu Zetian ( meaning "ruler of the sky".) Born in a noble family, at age 14 recruited to be Emperor Li Shi Min to be his concubine. When Wu Zetian was 27, Li Shi Min died, and Wu Zetian had to live the rest of her life in a Buddhist Nunnery. The New Emperor Li Zhi against tradition, invited Wu Zetian to be his concubine. Wu accepted, outrage to Chinese. She gave Li Zhi 2 sons. Wu Zetian wanted to be empress, murdered her daughter, blamed it on Empress Wang, Empress Wang abolished, Wu Zetian becomes empress, Li Zhi and Wu Zetian ruled together . Wu's power grew. When Li Zhi suffered a stroke in 660 and was unable to handle his affairs, Wu made herself Emperor although not officially recognized, Wu's Sons made Emperors, in 690, disposed of her son, and made herself Emperor of China. Improved agriculture, lowered taxes, improved public works, and raised standard for serving in the court, published biographies of Chinese women. Followed Buddhism and sponsored building of Buddhist temples and shrines, downplayed confucusim because negative view of women in leadership. Gave her position to one of her sons in 705 and died the same year.
The Epic of Beowulf is the oldest English poem in existence, composed in early 700's in the Anglo-Saxon language by an unknown author. The story takes place in Sweden and Denmark in 500's. Monster named Grendel attacked and ate thirty men at local dining haling Denmark, news reaches Beowulf in southern Sweden. he and 14 others volunteer to fight Grendel. Beowulf uses no weapons and twists arm off, Grendel returns home in a swamp and bleeds to death. Later Grendel's Mother attacks Beowulf in revenge, Beowulf kills Grendel's Mother as well, and becomes an hero to the Danish people. Beowulf returns to Sweden and becomes king of the Geats for 50 years, then in his old age, Beowulf and his friend Wiglaf fight against a fire-breathing Dragon, the kill it, but Beowulf dies of his wounds. Poem sheds light on Anglo-Saxon Language, tells of heroic virtue of Swedes and Danes, and tells that at one time men fought for their lives against large creatures like Grendel, his mother, and the dragon. Tales of dragons, sea monsters, and other large creatures abundant in Old World Literature.
"The Ornament of the World"
In Medieval Spain
- Southern Spain in the middle ages, Jews, Muslims, and Christians lived in harmony, Muslims called it al-Andalus, Jews called it Sefarad, Christians called it The Kingdom Of Cordoba, or the home of the Moors. Nicknamed "the Ornament of the world". Spain shares the Iberian peninsula with Portugal, oceans on three sides and attaches to France by the pyrenees mountains. earliest people of spain, the Iberians, not much known about them, first settlers of spain, the Phoenicians, Cadiz, Spain founded by the Phoenicians, in 1130 B.C., Oldest city in Europe, first people to conquer all of the iberian peninsula, the Romans, who called the land hispania, were spains name comes from, when the western roman empire collapsed, spain invaded by vandals and visigoths c. 400, visigoths held spain till 711, when the muslims invaded, these muslims from north africa called themselves the Berbers, the romans called them the "moors", from the name of the white skinned mauri tribe, segment of the berber people (term moor unpopular among Arabs) the moors were islamic. first moorish army to invade spain led by man named Tariq, when he sailed to spain, came to rock (ancient people called it the Pillars of Hercules) Tariq named it " the rock of mountain of Tariq" in arabic - Gebel al-Tariq, today known as Gibraltar. Moors stayed in spain for 800 years. In Damascus, Syria, lived the Umayyads, the ruling family of the islamic empire. in 750, the Abbasids killed the Umayyads and took over the empire, Abd al-Rhaman, a teenage prince of the Umayyad family, swam the euphrates river, and fled to the Berbers of Northwestern Africa (his mother was a berber). took him 5 years. when the Abbasids ruled in East, And al-Rahman resurrected the Umayyad dynasty in the west, centered dynasty in city of Cordoba, Spain, Fair taxes, well policed towns, organized laws, strong marketplaces, industry of silver, gold, copper, iron, pearls, and coral. famous sword making in Toledo, Cordoba crafted shields, leather, books, Aqueducts built by romans provided water, water wheels irrigated crops. raised sidewalks, paved and lit streets. attracted thinkers, scientists, builders, doctors, artists, musicians. c. 400,000 volumes palace library. Arabic, Jews and Christians learned to speak it. "Arabized" Christians called "Mozarabs". Bible translated into arabic. Man from cordoba invented spectacles and a flying machine. Arabian Horses, Postal Service, new coins, 70 libraries across region, ring songs. Nun named Hroswitha described Andalusian culture as " the brilliant ornament of the world" Abd-al-Rahman had the Great Mosque of Cordoba built, completed 200 years later. built palace retreat of rusafa to ease his homesickness. Christian Persecution, allowed to worship God, but not allowed to speak against Allah.
St. Boniface Apostle to Germany
- Winfrid: Born in Wessex, England, was Anglo-Saxon. At age 5 wanted to become a monk. Was trained in a Benedictine monastery . Winfrid ordained at age 30. First Assignment: to preach to a group of pagans in Friesland, Germany (Now in the Netherlands). King Radbod, king of Freisland, heard the gospel from Winfrid and other missionaries, did not listen, Winfrid went back to England. Later went to Hesse, Germany. The people of Hesse believed in a "sacred oak tree", and they were going to sacrifice a prince to it. Winfrid cut the tree down (The tree was 6 feet across). Then he used a nearby fir tree (evergreen) to symbolize the everlasting love of God. Used the wood of the oak tree to build a church. Winfrid then went to Rome where he was consecrated a bishop by the pope. Renamed Boniface. Wherever he when he set up monasteries, including the Abbey of Fulda. Became archbishop of Maniz. Preached in Germany for 30 years. At age 70 went back to Freisland, 50 monks & nuns went with him. Went well until June 5, 754, when they were attacked by a gang of pagans. Boniface and his clergy died.
The Iconoclast Controversy
- Before Christianity spread to Europe, the Greeks and Romans practiced idol worship. As Christianity spread through Europe, the people gave up idol worship. Over time people began to wonder if they should have any statues, paintings or crosses in their churches. Were people praying to icons instead of God? Iconoclast - Greek eikon (icon) and klastes (breaker). Images of Mary and the saints in churches, people bowed, kissed, left flowers and burned incense to these images. Trinkets that symbolized Christianity were used as good luck charms. Leo III thought all the imagery was superstitious. In 726 ordered in a edict that all statues in churches removed, and pictures of saints painted over with whitewash (did allow plain cross). Rioting broke out in Constantinople and officials removing images were trampled to death. Troops called in to quiet rioters. Riots also in Greece and Italy. Greeks sent warships to Constantinople, Leo had them destroyed. Leo's son Constantine V - if monks found resisting the edict, he had them tortured. By 767 Constantine V shut down most churches and monasteries. Emperor Constantine V's Grandson took the throne at young age, his mother Irene regent. She allowed images in worship if it was recognized that they were different then God himself. When Irene's son became older, he had her exiled, she had him thrown in prison. Irene lowered the taxes, raised money for charity p, and beautified the capital. The people loved her, the army didn't. She was eventually banished for good. Spent the rest of her life on the island of Lesbos. When the Church split in 1054, the eastern church went back to using images, the western church didn't for a long time.
Charles, mayor of the Franks (Germanic Tribe that set up the country of France, primarily christian thanks to King Clovis.) Charles may have/not been Christian. Muslims quickly spreading towards Europe. A Muslim General attempted to lead his troops into France. Charles and his army went up against them at a place in France between the towns of Tours and Poitiers. 7 days no fighting. On a Saturday on October in 732 The Battle of Tours/Poitiers began. Franks stood as an "Immovable wall" or a "rock of ice", The Franks drove the Muslims back to Spain. Charles earned the nickname "The Hammerer" Martel in French.
When Charles Martel died, his son Pepin became the next mayor of the Franks. The official king of the Franks - line of rulers called the Merovingians, had crown of France and Germany, they were weak and had no real power or respect from their people. Pepin had great power and respect, thought he should be king. Went to the Pope, asked him who should be King of the Franks - the one with the crown, or the one with the power. The Pope thought the one with the power. In 761 the Merovingians forced out, Pepin The Short Crowned King of the Franks, Started the Carolingian line of rulers, Pepin gave the pope a large gift of land, the Donation of Pepin, later called the papal states. Pepin died in 768, his Son Charlemagne inherited the Frankish Empire. Did not learn to read and write until adult, he ordered that every monastery and abbey had to have a school. Under Charlemagne, "Carolingian Handwriting" was taught to replace cursive in the Bible, was supposed to be easier to read and write, basis for modern handwriting. Charlemagne made himself a student at his palace, Aix-la-chapalle, capital of the Frankish Empire in western Germany. Successful Administrator, developed justice system, was nicknamed "the civilizer". Offered to marry Empress Irene of the Byzantine Empire, she turned him down. Charlemagne expanded his empire, defeated the pagan saxons. Abd al-Rahman, prince of the Umayyad dynasty, Charlemagne's rival. Some Spanish Muslims such ad Ibn al-Arabi, governor of Barcelona, Spain, did not want to be ruled by Abd al-Rahman, they came to to Charlemagne to ask for help against the Andalusians (or Saracen, name from Saragossa) Charlemange came to help and the fighting between the Franks and the Saracens began. Franks not strong enough to defeat the Saracens. Charlemagne reatreated. During the trip home through the Pyrenees, the rear division of Charlemagne's army was attacked by Muslims. Roland (Charlemagne's nephew) and his men killed. One of the most famous poems of the middle ages -The Song of Roland- written in his honor. Charlemagne later returned and was more successful, never conquered all of Spain. When Charlemagne conquered new lands forced people to convert to Christianity or die. Charlemagne had four wives and many mistresses. On christmas day in 800, at St. Peters cathedral in Rome, Pope Leo crowned, anointed, and saluted Charlemagne, and declared him Emperor of Rome. Led to later Holy Roman Empire. Divided his kingdom among his sons, later was redivided for his grandsons at the treaty of verdun. Charlemagne died at age 72, in 814, due to high fever.
The Thousand and One Nights: Tales of Arabia
Abbasid Dynasty - gained control of Eastern Arab world in 750, overthrew Umayyad dynasty. Abbasids descendants of Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas. Abbasids move capital from Damascus to Baghdad became one of the worlds largest and most amazing cities. Most famous caliph of Abbasid dynasty - Harun al-Rashid. 5th caliph of Eastern Islamic Empire, powerful military leader, fought Byzantine Empire and Tunisia. Passion for learning and love for arts. Disguised himself as a commoner to experience daily life of his people. Gift of water clock to Charlemagne.
- The Arabian Nights, or The Thousand and One Nights - legend, Queen Scheherazade made up The
- Arabian Nights, because she was engaged to the Persian king, or Sultan, named Shahriyar, who had a law that his bride had to be killed the morning after the wedding. She told him a fascinating story on their wedding night, and stopped at the most exciting part. She hoped that he would keep her alive until the next night to hear the rest of the story. Her plan worked, the sultan kept her alive for at least a thousand and one nights. The sultan changed the law of killing his brides. As a result, a collection of 200 stories.
Aladdin - Chinese boy hired by a magician to retrieve a magic lamp, refused to give it up, magician locked him in cave. Aladdin rubbed lamp genie came out of lamp, promised to give him anything he wished for, wished to marry sultan's daughter and give her palace to live in. Got both wishes, but evil magician wanted revenge, played trick on princess to get the lamp, and moved palace to another country, Aladdin rescued princess and lamp and returned palace
Ali Baba and 40 Thieves - Ali Baba followed thieves to secret passageway that could be opened by magic password "open sesame", he tried it himself and it worked, cave full of gold. Told his brother, who got in the cave, but forgot the password on the way out, was trapped and killed by thieves, who ambushed Ali Baba by hiding in oil pots, slave girl poured hot oil on pots, Ali Baba gets gold.
- Sinbad the Sailor- Sinbad hears beggar jealous of his fortune, Sinbad tells him seven stories of how he became rich, poked out ogre eyes, building wooden armor to not get snake bitten, rode giant bird through valley of death to snatch diamonds, buried alive in tomb of skeletons and riches, escaped through badger hole with jewels. Shares wealth with beggar, friends for life.
- The Vikings (or Norsemen or Northmen) were savage raiders who plundered and destroyed many villages across Europe for 300 years. They were originally from Scandinavia - Norway- hills, mountains and fjords, not much space for crops, Sweden- few hills, more farmland, but weeks without sun shining, Denmark- year-round sun, made of 500 islands tough for farming. The Vikings built ships and raided other lands. Ships - 100 ft. long, made of flexible layers of wood, sometimes called dragon boats for the dragon head that decorated the front bow. First documented viking raid on monastery- in 793 on Lindisfarne, monasteries usually stocked with provisions, and lightly guarded by monks and nuns. Vikings depicted with wearing helmets with animal horns, not much evidence of this, did wear helmets of leather or iron that covered the nose, wealthy had chain mail, less wealthy wore leather, weapons - long swords, battle-axes and a single edged knife called scramasax. Some Vikings patterned themselves after legendary heroes called Jomsvikings and the Berserks. The Jomsvikings rugged and masculine, refused to keep women in their homes. Berserks - for battle they dressed in animal skins went into a wild rage, and howled like animals. The term, "Going Berserk" comes from this. The Swedish Vikings conquered what is now Russia, made Kiev their capital city, called themselves Varangians, the name Russia from Varangian tribe called "Rus" or "Rhos" (may have described red hair, common Viking trait.) Danish Vikings ruled parts of England, France, and Spain. In England, ruled area called York for 300 years. In France, Vikings sacked Paris 3 times (845, 856, 885) king paid large sums of money -Danegeld- to leave. Danish Vikings settled province of Normandy, the king of the west franks gave it to them and had a Viking named Rollo became Duke of Normandy, he became a Christian and pledged allegiance to France. Grandson William the Conqueror. Norwegian Vikings settled Greenland, Iceland, Vineland (N. America), Scotland and Ireland, Dublin originally a Viking town.
The Vikings: Their families, their homes, and their faith
- Vikings- cruel, ruthless, for survival stole and raided new lands for nearly three centuries. Vikings lived with extended family, when child born, father decides whether it should live or die depending on how healthy it was. Vikings had no last names, but almost always had descriptive nicknames such as Erik the "Red" made their own food and clothing, men wore tight woolen pants and women wore long sleeved dresses, married women wore scarves over their hair, children dressed like their parents, all wore leather shoes. Also wore warm woolen tunics, used brooches to attach tunics to the shoulder, women hung keys or comb from the brooches. Craftsmen made items from glass, bone and antler. Blacksmithing common trade in Viking regions due to the abundance of iron ore. Blacksmiths made nails, locks, horseshoes, weapons, and tools. At home played board games and chess, threw dice (VIKINGS CHEATERS, Secret weights found in dice), got chess from Arabs who thy traded with. Horse fights, trained dogs tricks, jumped from oar to oar outside a Viking ship, ice skates, riddles, juggled, two week long feasts three times a year. Viking poets- skalds- memorized stories and legends of Viking gods and warriors, many written down in 13th century, and can be read today. Written language - made up of runes, few could read or write. Rune stones - great stones carved without runes used as memorials and markers. Home - longhouse- fire all the time, caldron suspended over fire for heating water and for cooking. Wealthy had separate rooms, in summer common for families to move to smaller homes called sheilings, summer busy time making milk, butter and cheeses for winter. Hard work required in Viking families, lazy children called "Charcoal Chewer" meant child who sat by the fire too long doing nothing. Hard work to eat, only had two meals a day. Viking children did not go to school. Vikings belived in two families of gods, the Aesir and the Vanir who supposedly ived in a place called Asgard which joined earth by a rainbow bridge. Belived 12 gods and 12 goddesses lived in Asgard , earth thought to be flat and surrounded by deep oceans of monsters, and beyond oceans lived the frost giants, enemies of the gods. When a Viking died, he was either buried with his ship, or his ship was set aflame and set out to sea. Valhalla like heaven to the Vikings, if died in battle, they belived they would go there on an 8 legged horse named Sleipner. There they would eat, drink, and fight endlessly while being served by beautiful young women. Odin - important Viking god, owned Valhalla, god of kings, poets, and warriors, supposed creator of rune alphabet, lost an eye at the world tree where he died and came back to life, the English called him Woden, where we get Wednesday. Thor, where we get Thursday, Viking god of the sky, had a magic hammer for weapon. Frey, god of peace, crops, cattle, and marriage. Frigg, where we get Friday, wife of odin goddess of love and fertility. Tuesday comes from tiw, god of war. Missionaries shared gospel with Vikings in the 800-900's vikings converted to Christianity.
- c. 800 - 1100
Methodius and Cyril, Missionaries to the Slavs
- The Slavs- in the 8th century settled in southeastern Europe & western Russia. First Slav state ruled by the Bulgars (Bulgaria later developed from this) Bulgar Slavs attacked Constantinople in 811 & killed the Emperor. Moravians (modern Czech Republic) (also Slavs) afraid this was beginning of war. The Moravian King, Rostislav suggested the new Byzantine Emperor should send missionaries to the slavic nations rather than prepare for war. Methodius and Cyril, brothers from Thessalonica heard of king Rostislavs call for missionary help. Mathodious was an abbot of a Greek monastery and Cyril was a teacher of philosophy in Constantinople, and both had been missionaries to people near the black sea. Methodius and Cyril found that the slavs had no written language and they did not know Latin or Greek, the only languages the New Testament was written in. They spoke Slavak. Methodius and Cyril invented a new alphabet , the Cyrillic Alphabet (Became foundation of the Russian alphabet today). They translated portions of the Bible and Church writings into Slavonic. Cyril translated the entire old testament from the Greek Septuagint into Slavonic. Cyril died in 869. Methodius continued his work as a bishop in Moravia. Methodius used his gift as a painter to create a beautiful painting of the last judgment of Christ that was so beautiful that king Boris of Bulgaria converted to christianity upon just seeing it. Written languages crept into slavic nations. The churches in Moravia, Bohemia, Slavakia, Hungary, and Poland eventually just used Latin. But Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia kept the Slavonic language. The Slavs fought with the Byzantine Empire untill they were defeated in 1014.
Alfred the Great
King of England
- English history - Ancient peoples built Stonehenge in 2700 B.C., the Celts settled England c. 600 B.C.,
- The Romans invaded in 55 B.C. under Julius Caesar, the Romans stayed for 300-400 years. When wester roman empire collapsed, The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded and the Romans left, King Arthur the Celtic king tried to stop the Saxons. Christianity was brought to England by st. Augustine of Canterbury under the leadership of Gregory the Great. Then the Danish Vikings attacked.
Alfred the Great - the Only king of England to be called the "Great". Was born the youngest of 5 boys in Berkshire, England. His mother created a contest, she would award a prize to which ever son learned to read first, Alfred won, his mother gave him a book of Anglo-Saxon Poems. Before age 7, Alfred visited Rome twice and was confirmed by the pope. In 871 became King of Wessex, the western kingdom of the Saxons. Was only 22. His first year as king, faught 9 battles against the Danish Vikings, wasn't always sucsessful. According to Legend, when the Danes seemed to be winning the war, King Alfred disguised himself as a minstrel, snuck into the Danish camp, and, wile performing, in front of Guthrum, the Danish chieftain, herd all their plans and strategies. By springtime king Alfred was able to force Guthrum and the Danish to surrender. in 878, king Alfred purposes that Guthrum and 30 of his men become Christians. They did, and Guthrum was baptized, and Alfred hosted a 12-day feast. Alfred invited the Danes to stay in England under a peace treaty under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Later different, more aggressive Danes invaded. Alfred took the city of London and subdued the Danes, pushing them to the Eastren region of England called Danelaw and left the Ango-saxons in peace for c. 100 years Alfred built a navy to protect the coast and rebuilt and fortified the towns and villages that the Vikings had ransacked and destroyed to keep peace between the seven kingdoms of England. King Alfred created common laws to follow based one the ten commandments. Promised the poor 1/8 of the revinue of his kingdom. Worked hard to restore the educational system destroyed by the Danes, set up a school in the palace and gave 1/8 of the money of his kingdom to education. Translated important literary works from Latin to Old English (from which nearly 1/2 of modern English comes from) including the N.T. To keep track of English History started the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Kept running account of the current events, was published for centuries.