- Kingdom of Kush (Nubians) - what is now Sudan. Main city - island of Meroe, actually not really an island, located where Nile divides into two smaller rivers. Traded with China and West Africa.
- Kushites built pyramids, trained elephants as weapons of war, advanced ironmaking, swimming pool with lion head waterspouts, and at one time ruled over the Egyptians. But by A.D. 250 dissapeared. Kushite writings not yet disiphered.
The Nok - emerged between 1000 & 500 B.C. In what is now Nigeria. Like the Kushites, dark skinned and good iron makers. Also artistic, terra cotta faces of the Nok people. Nok disappeared around A.D. 250
- Great Zimbabwe - "great stone house", built stone buildings without mortar, still stand today. 3 distinct sets of stone buildings - hill ruins - 300 ft. Above the rest, natural cave there. Elliptical Building - Probably home of the King and other leaders, walls 32 ft. high & 16 ft. thick. Elliptical Building tall cone shaped tower. Between elliptical building and hill ruins are the valley of ruins - where 10 district structures are, probably housed less important community leaders. Dagas, mud huts, would have covered the area of the valley or ruins where most of the people lived. Each location, the stone ruins made of granite cut to fit together without mortar. The structures not perfect enough to allow roof coverings. Busy, most of the 10,000 residents farmers, evidence of trade route, gold plentiful as well as copper and iron.
- c. 900