Ch 21

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  1. The urinary system function
    removes waste products from the blood and helps maintain homeostasis
  2. who has predisposition to infection and why?
    • females have predisposition to infection
    • short urethra
    • proximity to anus
  3. defenses of urinary tract
    • flushing action of urine flowing out of system
    • urine flow also encourages shedding of epithelial cells lining the urinary tract, microbes shed with the cell
  4. what is most common microbial threat to the urinary tract
    normal microbiota
  5. Defenses in urine
    • acidic pH
    • lysozyme
    • lactoferrin
    • secretory IgA
  6. lysozyme
    enzyme that breaks downs peptidoglycan
  7. lactoferrin
    iron binding protein that inhibits bacterial growth
  8. secretory IgA
    specific for previous encounters microorganism
  9. Vagina protected by
    changes in pH
  10. What stimulates release of glycogen secretion by vaginal mucosa
  11. bacteria ferment ______ into _____
    glycogen unto acid
  12. bacteria ferment glycogen into acid
    lowering the ph of bag to 4.5
  13. changes in ph beginning in adolescence result
    in vastly different biota in the vag
  14. biota of women in their childbearing years prevent
    establishment of microbes that might harm the developing fetus
  15. Not considered to be an innate defense of urinary system
    secretory IgA- because it has antibodies
  16. Cystitis
    inflammation of urinary bladder
  17. cystitis infection is indicated by
    • 10,000 bacteria/ml or
    • 100 cloakrooms/ml
  18. Cystitis symptoms
    • frequent urges to urinate, even when bladder empty
    • dysuria
    • urine can be cloudy due to the presences of bacteria and white blood cells
    • hematuria
    • low grade fever, and nausea
  19. dysuria
    burning pain accompanying urination
  20. hematuria
    presence of blood in the urine causes it ti have an orange color
  21. Cystitis usual causative agents
    E. coli and staphylococcus saprophyticus
  22. Urethra
    • inflammation of urethra
    • portal of entry- infection moves up
  23. Pyelonephritis
    inflammation of one or both kidneys
  24. Pyelonephritis causing agent
    E. coli
  25. Pyelonephritis symptoms
    high fever, back or flank pain
  26. Pyelonephritis diagnosis
    104 CFUs/ml + LE test
  27. Pyelonephritis treatment cephalosporin
  28. CFU means
    colony forming unit
  29. Leptospirosis causative agent
    leptospira interrogans
  30. Leptospirosis reserviour
    dogs and rats
  31. Leptospirosis transmission
    skin mucosal contact from urine contaminated water
  32. Leptospirosis symtpoms
    headaches, muscular aches, fever, kidney failure a possible complication
  33. Leptospirosis diagnosis
    serological test
  34. Leptospirosis treatment
  35. leptospirosis contracted
    1990, dozen athletes competing in the swimming phase of triathlon in Illinois contractor leptospirosis from the water
  36. Discharge disease in Genitourinary tract
    • trichomoniasis
    • gonorrhea
    • chlamydia
  37. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) most common in
  38. are responsible for unprecedented number of infertility cases
    discharge diseases
  39. what infections are incurable?
    • herpes
    • human papilloma virus (HPV)
  40. Gonorrhea caused by
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  41. Gonorrhea type
    gram negative cocci
  42. Gonorrhea how attach
    attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae
  43. _____ prevent _____ proliferation
    Ops proteins, CD4+ T cells
  44. Types Gonorrhea
    • anal gonorrhea
    • pharyngeal gonorrhea
  45. Gonorrhea if left untreated may result in
    endocarditis, meningitis, arthritis, ophthalmia neoinatorum
  46. Gonorrhea symptoms mens
    painful urination and discharge of pus
  47. Gonorrhea symptoms women
    • few symptoms
    • often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection
    • possible complications such as PID
  48. Gonorrhea diagnosis
    gram stain, ELISA, PCR
  49. Gonorrhea treatment
  50. Chlamydia (Chlamydial urethritis) caused by
    Chlamydia trachomatis
  51. Chlamydia is the most commonly reported
    notifiable disease in the US
  52. Chlamydia know as
    non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) (not caused by gonorrhea)
  53. Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID) caused by
    • polymicrobic 
    • N. gonorrheae
    • C trachomatis
  54. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) infection of
    Uterine tubes= salpingitis
  55. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease symptoms
    chronic abdominal pain
  56. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease treatment
    Doxycycline and cefoxitin
  57. syphilis caused by
    treponema pallidum
  58. Syphillis invades
    invades mucosa or through skin breaks
  59. One of the top five most reported diseases in US
  60. Syphilis treatment
    benzathine penicillin
  61. Syphilis cogental
    neurological damage
  62. Syphilis primary stage
    Chancre at site of infection
  63. Syphilis secondary stage
    skin and mucosal rashes
  64. Syphilis latent period
    no symptoms
  65. Syphilis tertiary stage
    umma on many organs
  66. Tuskegee syphilis experement
    • clinical study
    • between 1932-1972
    • US public health service to study natural progression of untreated syphilis
  67. Tuskegee syphilis experiments on
    • rural black men who though were received free health care from US gov
    • were never told they had syphilis
  68. Vaginitis symptoms
    • inflammation of bag
    • vag itching depending on etiologic agent 
    • burning and discharge
  69. Vaginosis symptoms
    similar to vaginitis but does not include significant inflammation
  70. Vaginitis causative agent
    candida albicans
  71. Vaginitis grows on
    • mucosa of mouth
    • intestinal tract
    • genitourinary tract
  72. Vaginitis in males
    NGU not caused by gonorrhea
  73. Vulvovaginal candidiasis
    yeasty discharge
  74. Vaginitis pH
  75. Vaginitis diagnosis
    microscopic and culture
  76. Vaginitis treatment
    • clotrimazole 
    • fluconazole
  77. Bacterial vaginosis causative agent
    gardeners vaginalis
  78. Vaginosis symptoms
    copious fishy, gray white, thin frothy discharge
  79. pH vaginosis
  80. Vaginosis diagnosis
    clue cells
  81. Vaginosis treatment
  82. Gardnerella not transmitted by
  83. Gardeners species only associated with
  84. Gardenerella species could occur if
    semen (or saliva) causes changes in the vaginal epithelium or biota
  85. What causes increased numbers of Gardnerella
    not known
  86. Low pH typical of the vagina is higher in
  87. trichomoniasis caused agent
    trichomonad vaginalis
  88. Trichomoniasis found in
    semen or urine of male carriers
  89. Trichomoniasis vaginal infections causes
    irritation and profuse foul, greenish yellow brother discharge
  90. pH of trichomoniasis
  91. Trichomoniasis diagnosis
    microscopic identification, DNA probe
  92. Trichomoniasis treatment
  93. Genital herpes caused by
    herpes simplex virus 2 (human herpesvirus 2, HSV-2)
  94. What is genital herpes?
    painful vesicles on genetial
  95. How neonatal herpes transmitted
    transmitted to fetus or newborns
  96. Where do recurrence from virus latent appear
    in nerves
  97. Genital Herpes suppression
  98. Genital warts
    human paillomaviruses
  99. Some strains of HPV cause
    cervical cancer and cancer or the penis
  100. Genital warts treatment
    • podofilox
    • imiquimod
  101. Genital warts prevention
    vaccination against HPV strains
  102. HIV enters
    mucous membranes or the skin
  103. HIV enters mucous membrane or the skins and travels to
    dendritic cells beneath the epithelium
  104. Where does HIV virus grow
    inside the dendritic cell and is shed without killing the cell
  105. HIV virus amplifies by
    macrophages in the skin, lymph organs, bone marrow, and blood
  106. HIV virus infects and destroys
    Helper T4 and CD4 lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and B lymphocytes
  107. HIV transmission
    • semen and vaginal secretions harbor free virus and infected white blood cells 
    •    significant factor in sexual transmission
  108. HIV virus can be isolated from
    • urine
    • tears
    • sweat
    • saliva

    all not considered sources of infection
  109. Breast milk HIV transmission
    neonates who have escaped infection prior to and during birth can still become infected through nursing
  110. HIV infection and AIDS epidemiology
    • about 1 % if people who are antibody positive remain free of the AIDS 
    • functioning immunity to the virus can develop
  111. HIV infection and AIDS nonprogressor
    any person who remains healthy despite HIV infection
  112. HIV infection and AIDS nonprogressor some people lack
    the cytokine receptors that HIV require for entry
  113. HIV infection and AIDS nonprogressor other people infected
    with a weakened mutant strain of the virus
  114. HIV infection and AIDS transmission
    • direct (sexual)
    • parenteral (blood-borne)
    • vertical (perinatal and via breast milk)
Card Set:
Ch 21
2015-04-26 19:39:04

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