Patho- Neoplasia.txt

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Mawad
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301410
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Patho- Neoplasia.txt
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2015-04-23 17:08:46
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vetmed patho neoplasia
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vetmed pathology
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  1. A proliferative response in adult tissue featuring disorderly cell proliferation that manifests as variations in cell size, shape, and orientation.
    Dysplasia
  2. The etiology of dysplasia is ______________ that occurs with... (3)
    persistent growth stimulation; chronic irritation, inflammation, or early-onset neoplasia.
  3. An abnormal mass of tissue that exhibits autonomous cell growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of adjacent normal tissue; acquired and irreversible.
    neoplasia
  4. The growth disturbance characteristic of neoplastic disease is ______________.
    anaplasia
  5. Cancer typically arises from ______________.
    irreversible genetic damage
  6. Neoplasia is usually ___________ in origin and arises in ________ cells as the result of ___________.
    clonal; adult; rare mutations
  7. Stimulate cell replication.
    oncogenes/ proto-oncogenes
  8. Suppress cell proliferation.
    tumor suppressor genes
  9. Control cell proliferation.
    cell cycle control genes
  10. Repair damaged genes.
    DNA repair or methylation genes
  11. Mask foreign gene insertions.
    methylation genes
  12. Alter cell senescence programming.
    telomeres
  13. The fundamental etiology is cancer is...
    mutations in potentially dividing cell populations.
  14. Tumors become more ____________ in appearance and more ____________ over time.
    embryonic; malignant
  15. The embryonic cell/tissue of origin.
    histogenesis
  16. The degree to which neoplastic cells resemble their normal counterparts.
    differentiation
  17. Induction of genetic damage in a cell.
    Initiaiton
  18. Fixation of a mutation in a gene, thereby reducing or removing a cell's responsiveness to normal signals that regulate cell growth.
    Transformation
  19. Cumulative process by which descendants of an initiated cell are encouraged by various factors to survive and expand in number.
    Promotion
  20. Usually a well-differentiated neoplasm that does not metastasize and does not necessarily lead to death (depending on location).
    Benign
  21. A neoplastic growth having variable degrees of anaplasia and which may metastasize; will eventually cause death.
    malignant
  22. Benign neoplasms are _____-differentiated; malignant neoplasms are ______-differentiated.
    well; de
  23. Benign neoplasms grow by __________; malignant neoplasms grow by ___________.
    expansion; expansion, invasion, metastasis
  24. Benign neoplasms' margins are _____________; malignant neoplasms' margins are ______________.
    encapsulated; poorly demarcated
  25. Benign neoplasms' rate of growth is ______________; malignant neoplasms' rate of growth is ______________.
    relatively slow; rapid
  26. The progression of growth of benign neoplasms is ______________; of malignant neoplasms is ______________.
    slow/dormant; relentless progression
  27. The blood vascular supply of benign neoplasms is ______________; of malignant neoplasms is _______________.
    adequate; inadequate
  28. The nuclear morphology of benign neoplasms is _______________; the nuclear morphology of malignant neoplasms is ______________.
    resembling normal; pleomorphic
  29. Benign tumor of surface epithelium.
    papilloma
  30. Malignant tumor of surface epithelium.
    carcinoma
  31. Benign tumor of glandular epithelium.
    adenoma
  32. Malignant tumor of glandular epithelium.
    adenocarcinoma
  33. Benign tumors of mesodermal origin are named by...
    cell type and suffix -oma
  34. Malignant tumors of mesodermal origin are named by...
    cell type and suffix -sarcoma
  35. Gonadal neoplasms arising from multiple germ layers within gonadal tissues- show tissue organization and cell types not uaully present in that organ or tissue.
    teratoma
  36. Arise as non-gonadal tumors and are composed of more than one malignant or benign neoplastic call type.
    mixed tumor
  37. 3 ways to describe spreading pattern.
    expansive, invasive, infiltrative
  38. 4 ways to describe shape.
    pedunculated, sessile, solid, cystic
  39. Wilm's tumor is ____________.
    nephroblastoma
  40. Tumor grading is on a scale of __________ based on...
    I-IV; degree of cell differentiation of tumor cells relative to normal.
  41. A marked regressive change in adult cells representing reversion (de-differentiation) to a more primitive (embryonic) cell type.
    Anaplasia
  42. A common phenotypic change, characterized by great variation in size, shape, number, and appearance of individual cells.
    pleomorphism
  43. Production of fibrous tissue linked to tumor growth.
    desmoplasia
  44. A synonym for desomoplasia.
    scirrhous reaction
  45. Desmoplasia is a ___________ stromal proliferation due to _______________.
    non-neoplastic; tumor-secreted growth factors
  46. Desmoplasia is especially prominent in _______________ malignancies.
    epithelial-origin
  47. Metabolic changes associated with neoplasia.
    shift in protein production, anaerobic glycolysis, enhanced transport, enzymatic degradation of basement membranes and connective tissue (promoting invasion)
  48. Transformed cells typically over-express __________, which acts to maintain chromosome length and thus resist normal ___________.
    telomerase; senescence
  49. Regional phenotypic variation within the mass.
    tumor heterogeneity
  50. ___________________ creates space for the neoplasm to enter.
    Necrosis of normal tissue around the expanding tumor
  51. Acquired capacity of cell to penetrate the surrounding normal tissue- limited to malignant tumors.
    invasion
  52. The single most reliable diagnostic feature of malignancy.
    invasion
  53. Routes of invasion tend to...
    follow lines of least resistance (interstitial spaces)
  54. Tumors have enhanced capacity to survive harsh conditions by... (2)
    effectively producing glucose under anaerobic conditions, trapping extra nutrients.
  55. Metastatic potential is strongly correlated to ________________, but not _______________.
    primary tumor duration; primary tumor size
  56. Common sites for metatstasis. (5)
    lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and kidney
  57. 6 routes of metastasis.
    venous, arteriolar, lymphatic vessels, transplantation, implantation, carcinomatosis/sarcomatosis
  58. The venous route of transmission i common for __________.
    sarcomas
  59. Arteriolar route of metastasis is less common because of _____________.
    thick vascular walls
  60. Metastasis through lymphatic vessels is the most common pathway for _____________ and is eventually assed to the venous system through the _____________.
    carcinomas; thoracic duct
  61. Transplantation is possible for metastasis of __(4)__ tumors.
    ovary, uterus, GI, lung
  62. Migration along epithelial-lined ducts, possible for the metastasis of respiratory, digestive, and urinary tract tumors.
    Implantation
  63. "End stage" disseminated neoplastic disease.
    carcinomatosis/sarcomatosis
  64. Paraneoplstic syndromes involve... (2)
    hormones, hormone-like analogs
  65. Parenchymal changes associated with neoplasms. (3)
    pressure atrophy, necrosis/hemorrhage
  66. Describe the inflammatory responses associated with benign and malignant neoplasms.
    benign- prominent inflammation, malignant- little to none
  67. A generalized metabolic decline, possibly by nutrition competition with the host or secretion/generation of TNF-like substances.
    cachexia
  68. Systemic changes associated with neoplasia.
    cachexia, anemia, hypoproteinemia, immunosuppression
  69. 5 methods of diagnosis of neoplasia.
    cytology, biopsy, special stains, PCR, functional assays

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