Card Set Information
vetmed patho neoplasia
A proliferative response in adult tissue featuring disorderly cell proliferation that manifests as variations in cell size, shape, and orientation.
The etiology of dysplasia is ______________ that occurs with... (3)
persistent growth stimulation; chronic irritation, inflammation, or early-onset neoplasia.
An abnormal mass of tissue that exhibits autonomous cell growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of adjacent normal tissue; acquired and irreversible.
The growth disturbance characteristic of neoplastic disease is ______________.
Cancer typically arises from ______________.
irreversible genetic damage
Neoplasia is usually ___________ in origin and arises in ________ cells as the result of ___________.
clonal; adult; rare mutations
Stimulate cell replication.
Suppress cell proliferation.
tumor suppressor genes
Control cell proliferation.
cell cycle control genes
Repair damaged genes.
DNA repair or methylation genes
Mask foreign gene insertions.
Alter cell senescence programming.
The fundamental etiology is cancer is...
mutations in potentially dividing cell populations.
Tumors become more ____________ in appearance and more ____________ over time.
The embryonic cell/tissue of origin.
The degree to which neoplastic cells resemble their normal counterparts.
Induction of genetic damage in a cell.
Fixation of a mutation in a gene, thereby reducing or removing a cell's responsiveness to normal signals that regulate cell growth.
Cumulative process by which descendants of an initiated cell are encouraged by various factors to survive and expand in number.
Usually a well-differentiated neoplasm that does not metastasize and does not necessarily lead to death (depending on location).
A neoplastic growth having variable degrees of anaplasia and which may metastasize; will eventually cause death.
Benign neoplasms are _____-differentiated; malignant neoplasms are ______-differentiated.
Benign neoplasms grow by __________; malignant neoplasms grow by ___________.
expansion; expansion, invasion, metastasis
Benign neoplasms' margins are _____________; malignant neoplasms' margins are ______________.
encapsulated; poorly demarcated
Benign neoplasms' rate of growth is ______________; malignant neoplasms' rate of growth is ______________.
relatively slow; rapid
The progression of growth of benign neoplasms is ______________; of malignant neoplasms is ______________.
slow/dormant; relentless progression
The blood vascular supply of benign neoplasms is ______________; of malignant neoplasms is _______________.
The nuclear morphology of benign neoplasms is _______________; the nuclear morphology of malignant neoplasms is ______________.
resembling normal; pleomorphic
Benign tumor of surface epithelium.
Malignant tumor of surface epithelium.
Benign tumor of glandular epithelium.
Malignant tumor of glandular epithelium.
Benign tumors of mesodermal origin are named by...
cell type and suffix -oma
Malignant tumors of mesodermal origin are named by...
cell type and suffix -sarcoma
Gonadal neoplasms arising from multiple germ layers within gonadal tissues- show tissue organization and cell types not uaully present in that organ or tissue.
Arise as non-gonadal tumors and are composed of more than one malignant or benign neoplastic call type.
3 ways to describe spreading pattern.
expansive, invasive, infiltrative
4 ways to describe shape.
pedunculated, sessile, solid, cystic
Wilm's tumor is ____________.
Tumor grading is on a scale of __________ based on...
I-IV; degree of cell differentiation of tumor cells relative to normal.
A marked regressive change in adult cells representing reversion (de-differentiation) to a more primitive (embryonic) cell type.
A common phenotypic change, characterized by great variation in size, shape, number, and appearance of individual cells.
Production of fibrous tissue linked to tumor growth.
A synonym for desomoplasia.
Desmoplasia is a ___________ stromal proliferation due to _______________.
non-neoplastic; tumor-secreted growth factors
Desmoplasia is especially prominent in _______________ malignancies.
Metabolic changes associated with neoplasia.
shift in protein production, anaerobic glycolysis, enhanced transport, enzymatic degradation of basement membranes and connective tissue (promoting invasion)
Transformed cells typically over-express __________, which acts to maintain chromosome length and thus resist normal ___________.
Regional phenotypic variation within the mass.
___________________ creates space for the neoplasm to enter.
Necrosis of normal tissue around the expanding tumor
Acquired capacity of cell to penetrate the surrounding normal tissue- limited to malignant tumors.
The single most reliable diagnostic feature of malignancy.
Routes of invasion tend to...
follow lines of least resistance (interstitial spaces)
Tumors have enhanced capacity to survive harsh conditions by... (2)
effectively producing glucose under anaerobic conditions, trapping extra nutrients.
Metastatic potential is strongly correlated to ________________, but not _______________.
primary tumor duration; primary tumor size
Common sites for metatstasis. (5)
lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and kidney
6 routes of metastasis.
venous, arteriolar, lymphatic vessels, transplantation, implantation, carcinomatosis/sarcomatosis
The venous route of transmission i common for __________.
Arteriolar route of metastasis is less common because of _____________.
thick vascular walls
Metastasis through lymphatic vessels is the most common pathway for _____________ and is eventually assed to the venous system through the _____________.
carcinomas; thoracic duct
Transplantation is possible for metastasis of __(4)__ tumors.
ovary, uterus, GI, lung
Migration along epithelial-lined ducts, possible for the metastasis of respiratory, digestive, and urinary tract tumors.
"End stage" disseminated neoplastic disease.
Paraneoplstic syndromes involve... (2)
hormones, hormone-like analogs
Parenchymal changes associated with neoplasms. (3)
pressure atrophy, necrosis/hemorrhage
Describe the inflammatory responses associated with benign and malignant neoplasms.
benign- prominent inflammation, malignant- little to none
A generalized metabolic decline, possibly by nutrition competition with the host or secretion/generation of TNF-like substances.
Systemic changes associated with neoplasia.
cachexia, anemia, hypoproteinemia, immunosuppression
5 methods of diagnosis of neoplasia.
cytology, biopsy, special stains, PCR, functional assays