MS- Skeletal Neoplasia.txt
Card Set Information
MS- Skeletal Neoplasia.txt
vetmed musculoskeletal neoplasia
Skeletal neoplasia that is expansile, compressive, well-differentiated with minimal anaplasia.
benign skeletal neoplasia
Neoplasm of the periosteum with dense trabecular bone formed; exophytic.
Osteomas usually occur in ___________.
Neoplasm forming hyaline cartilage; usually of flat bones. RARE
Benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue. RARE
Skeletal neoplasm that is invasive with bone lysis and production that is usually rapidly growing with metastatic potential; cells range from poorly differentiated to well-differentiated.
Malignant skeletal neoplasia
Osteosarcoma is a malignancy of ___________ that may arise from the ____________ or ____________ with __________ mineralization.
osteoblasts; periosteum; medullary cavity; variable
Chondrosarcoma is a malignancy producing ___________ that is not known to arise from _______________ and is found in regions of ______________ with _____________ mineralization.
hyaline cartilage; articular hyaline cartilage; bone not near cartilage; patchy
Chondrosarcoma is more common in ____________.
Fibrosarcoma is a malignancy of _____________ with _________mineralization of ______________.
fibrous tissue; no; connective tissue
Fibrosarcoma in dogs can arise from the ___________________.
Synovial cell sarcoma is a malignancy of _____________ that usually ____________ the bone on both sides of the __________; there is _______ mineralization. With this type, usually no metastasis.
fibrocytic synoviocytes; lyses bone; joint space; no
Synovial cell sarcoma that is a malignancy of _____________; is usually malignant.
Metastatic malignancies to bone are usually _____________.
Lymphoreticular neoplasms of BM are mostly __________ and __________; plasma cell tumors in bone are called __________.
lytic; multicentric; multiple myeloma
Hematopoietic malignancies are usually not associated with ______________.
What radiographic views do you use to diagnose osteosarcoma?
lateral and craniocaudal
What are radiographic signs of osteosarcoma? (4)
osteolytic (moth-eaten), osteoblastic (proliferative- sunburst pattern), cortical lysis, codmans triangle (lifting of periosteum)
Possible etiologies of osteosarcoma? (6)
implants, fracture, osteomyelitis, bone infarcts, radiation, genetics
With FNA, neoplastic changes include... (3)
multinucleated giant cells, "comet cells"-osteoblasts, no/minimal inflammatory cells
Distinguish osteomyelitis from bone neoplasia with _______.
Once you have diagnosed osteosarcoma, your definite next step is to...
take thoracic radiographs to look for lung metastases
What aspect of osteosarcoma is lethal to our patients?
What is the most common chemotherapy for osteosarcoma in dogs?
Delivers radiation much more precisely to the affected area of osteosarcoma; with this method, you must still treat with chemo for micrometastases.
stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT)
Why is Doxorubicin used less frequently then carboplatin as chemotherapy in dogs with osteosarcoma, even though it is lower cost?
more potential side effects, such as cardiotoxicity
What is the adjuvant treatment for OSA in dogs?
thoracic radiographs every 2-3 months to check for macrometastases
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has generally not been effective in treating ___________.
gross metastatic disease
What is an alternative to limb spare surgery for pain relief?
palliative radiation therapy
What NSAID is commonly given for pain in dogs with OSA?
Describe OSA in cats.
metastasis is rare; amputation is often curative
With OSA in dogs, surgery alone is __________, but ___________ is ALWAYS present.
What is a contraindication for amputation?
severe DJD that prevents dog from standing/rising easily
4 surgical techniques for amputation with canine OSA.
wide soft tissue and bone margins to ensure complete excision, meticulous hemostasis, avoid incising the tumor, soft tissue padding of bony prominences to prevent pressure sores
What is the preferred method of amputation for forelimb OSA in dogs?
complete forequarter amputation (most comfortable for dog, most cosmetic, least chance of recurrence)
What are the 3 recognized techniques for hindlimb amputation for dogs with OSA?
coxofemoral disarticulation (preferred), proximal third of femur osteotomy, hemipelvectomy
What dogs are candidates for proximal third of femur osteotomy?
tibial tumors and distal sites
Describe a hemipelvectomy.
acetabulum at minimum is removed, sometimes 1/4 of the pelvis- required for proximal femur tumors
What is the ideal tumor for limb sparing surgery?
distal radius osteosarcoma
What are the different limb spare techniques?
allograft, endoprosthesis (metal plate), bone transport osteogenesis (rare), pasteurized tumor allograft (RARE), ulnar transposition (RARE)
What is the paradox of infected allografts?
surmount a better immune response and live longer
Diaphyseal tumors are almost always...
metastases, NOT primary bone tumors
Primary bone tumors are almost always in the __________.