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What are the 4 functions of the respiratory system?
- 1. gas exchange
- 2. Helps drive venous return
- 3. Vocalizationi
- 4. Regulates pH
What is the pressure formula?
Pressure = Flow x Resistance
What is the function of the uvula?
Helps revents liquids going up the nasal cavity
What cells cover most of the respiratory passages? Their functions?
- Ciliated Pseudostratified Epithelium with goblet cells
- - Cilia are constantly sweeping mucus
- - Goblet cells make mucus
What is another term for nose hair?
What do the lysozomes do in the secretion of the respiratory lining?
breaks down cell walls and bacteria
What is the name of an open airway?
Which part of the throat does food go down?
Which part of the lungs are the respiratory zone?
What cells make the walls of the alveoli?
simple squam epith
What is the function of surfactant cells?
pBreaks surface tension of the water molecules on the alveoli, preventing them from collapsing so they can expand.
T or F: Alveoli and endothelium in blood vessels share the same basement membrane
What seperates the thoacic and abdominal cavity?
What are the 2 layers of pleura that surround the lungs and what is between the 2 layers?
- - Visceral pleura surround the lungs
- - Parietal Pleura along the body wall
- - In between is the serous fluid
What is the main function of the visceral and parietal pleura on the lungs?
- Have an intense sunction between them.
- By expanding the thoracic cavity, this sunction will expand the lungs
This law states that at constant temperature for a fixed mass, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportionial. What is the law and what does it mean?
- Boyle's Law: If voluume changes, the pressure changes.
- - Increased volume = Decreased pressure
What is quiet breathing?
Tidal breathing: when the diaphragm moves only a few cms.
How does the body exhale?
- When the diaphragm relaxes, the thoracic volume goes down, which means the lung volume goes down and pressure increases
- This increased pressure makes the air flow out
What is a Pneumothorax? What is an Atelectasis?
- When there is air between the pleura, from a hole in the thoracic cavity (from a stab wound for example)
- Atelectasis is the term for a collapsed lung from a pneumothorax.
What major components make up the air?
What is Dalton's Law of partial pressure? What is the partial pressure inside the alveolus? In the capillary?
- At sea level, partial pressure in the room is 15mmHg
- Alveolus: is 104mmHg of pressure
- Capillariess: 40mmHg
What does having a higher partial pressure in the alveoli compared to the capillaries mean?
A higher pressure in the alveoli will cause the O2 to go into the capillary
What are the partial pressure of CO2 in the alveoli and capillary? What does this mean?
- Alveoli: 40mmHg
- Capillary: 45mmHg
- This will cause the CO2 to go into the alveoli
What happens to oxygen exchange at higher elevation?
- Higher elevation has less partial pressure which means there is less pressure in the alveoli
- This causes less O2 to go into the blood
What will be saturation if there is no oxygen in the tissues?
0% saturation in the blood
What is saturation if there is 40mmHg of PO2?
What metabolic activities will cause hemoglobin affinity for O2 to go down? Which direction does oxygen go in this case?
- Metabolic Activities:
- - Temp. Increase
- - Increased CO2 production
- This lets more oxygen into tissues
What is BPG? How does it effect O2 affinity?
- BPG is when there is a presence of increased glycolysis.
- This causes hemoglobin to have a lower affinity with O2
How is CO2 moved around in the blood? (3 parts)
- 1. 20-30% of CO2 are bound to hemoglobin
- 2. 7-10% are dissolved in plasma/water
- 3. Around 60% are transported as HCO3-
Why is carbon monoxide deadly?
It will bind to hemoglobin faster than oxygen by 200x. Causing you to suffocate
Which parts of the brain are the control centers of respiration? How?
Pons and Medulla: Monitors CO2
T or F: When scuba diving, swimming 30ft below has twice the partial pressure than normal air
Why do we need O2? Where does CO2 come from?
- - O2 is required by cellular respiration
- - CO2 is a product of it: Glucose -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
What are the 4 processes of respiration?
- 1. Pulmonary ventilation: movement of air into and out of lungs
- 2. External respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and alveolar sacs
- 3. Transport of respiratory gases between lungs and tissues
- 4. Internal respiration: Gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
What are the differences between respiratory and conducting zones?
- Conducting zone: transports the air into and out of the lungs
- Respiratory zone: allows gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
- - Alveoli are the respiratory zone
What are the functions of the nose?
- 1. airway for respiration
- 2. moistens and warms the air
- 3. filters and cleans inspired air
- 4. resonating chamber for speech
- 5. resonating chamber for speech
- 6. houses olfactory receptors
What is the major function of the pharynx
Act as a common passage for both food and air
Major function of the larynx
- - Prevent choking
- - Voice production, contains voice box
What are the properties of the trachea?
- 1. Maintain and protect the airway
- 2. Lines with mucus glands to humidify air and catches small particles
- 3. Has nerves for cough reflex
- 4. has hyaline cartilage to form the larynx
What is the function of the surfacant?
Reduces surface tension, so lungs would not stick together and can expand
Where are the visceral and parietal pleura?
- Parietal: on the thoracic wall and superior side of the diaphragm
- Visceral: on the external lung surface