CNA vocab revised

Card Set Information

CNA vocab revised
2015-04-24 16:41:09

Show Answers:

  1. abduction
    • moving a body part away from the mid-line of the body
    • "deducting"
    • *the aliens are abducting people, taking them away from earth
  2. ROM
    the movement of a joint to the extent possible w/o causing pain
  3. active range of motion (exercises)
    exercises done by the person
  4. passive range of motion exercises
    you move the joints (for the pt) through their range of motion
  5. active-assistive range of motion exercises
    the person does the exercises with some help
  6. acute
    • having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course of illness/pain
    • lasting a short time
  7. adduction
    • moving a body part toward the mid-line of the body
    • "adding"
  8. Acute illness
    a sudden illness from which a person is expected to recover
  9. ALR
    Assisted living residenceprovides housing, personal care, support services, health care and social activities in a home-like setting to persons needing help w daily activities
  10. case management
    • a nursing care pattern
    • a case manager (an RN) coordinates a person's care from admission through discharge and into the home or long-term care setting
  11. chronic illness
    • an ongoing illness, slow or gradual in onsethas no known cure
    • can be controlled and complications prevented with proper treatment
  12. functional nursing
    • a nursing care pattern focusing on tasks and jobs
    • each nursing team member has certain tasks and jobs to do
  13. health team
    • the many health care workers whose skills and knowledge focus on the person's total care
    • interdisciplinary health care team
  14. Nursing assistant
    • a person who has passed a nursing assistant training and competency evaluation program
    • performs delegated nursing tasks under the supervision of a licensed nurse
  15. Nursing team
    those who provide nursing care - RN's, LPNs/LVN's, and nursing assistants
  16. patient-focused care
    • a nursing care pattern
    • services are moved from departments to the bedside
  17. OBRA
    • Omnibus budget reconciliation act of 1987
    • is a FEDERAL LAW
    • purpose is to improve the quality of life of nursing center residents
    • sets minimum training and competency evaluation requirements for nursing assistants
    • Requires each state to have NATCEP
  18. Nursing practise is regulated by
    nurse practise acts
  19. NATCEP
    • Nursing Assistant Training and Competency Evaluation
    • each state is required to have one
    • a nursing assistant must be able to successfully complete in order to work
  20. assault
    intentionally attempting or threatening to touch a person's body w/o the person's consent
  21. battery
    Touching a person's body w/o his or her consent
  22. boundary crossing
    a brief act or behavior outside of the helpful zone
  23. civil law
    laws concerned with relationships btwn people
  24. libel
    making false statements in print, writing, or through pictures or drawings
  25. slander
    making false statements orally
  26. boundary sign
    an act, behavior, or thought that warns of a boundary crossing or violation
  27. ombudsman
    someone who supports or promotes the needs and interests of another person
  28. abandonment
    • to leave or desert someone
    • the person is deserted by someone who is suppose to give care
  29. abuse
    • the willful infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or punishment that results in physical harm, pain, or mental anguish
    • depriving the person (or persons caregiver) of the goods or services needed to attain or maintain well-being
  30. tort
    • a wrong committed against a person or the person's property
    • can be intentional or unintentional
  31. negligence
    an unintentional wrongthe negligent person did not act in a reasonable and careful manner; as a result a person or a person's property was harmed
  32. malpractice
    negligence by a professional person
  33. standard of care
    refers to skills, care, and judgements required by a health team member under similar conditions
  34. defamation
    injuring a person's name and reputation by making false statements to a third person
  35. false imprisonment
    the unlawful restraint or restriction of a person's freedom of movement
  36. advance directives
    written instructions about health care when the person is not able to make such decisions
  37. nurse practice acts
    • Each state has it's own nurse practice act, which defines RN and LPN, describes scope of practice, describes education and licensing requirements
    • Also used to decide what nursing assistants can do
    • It's purpose it to protect the public from person's practicing nursing w/o a license
  38. APS
    Adult protective services ~ Agency which helps elderly adults (age 65 & older) and dependent adults (18-64 who are disabled), when these adults are unable to meet their own needs, or are victims of abuse, neglect or exploitation.
  39. abuse registry
    a list of perpetrators of substantiated incidents of elder abuse that is managed by APS
  40. anemia
    a decrease in the amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin, which means the blood has a lowered ability to carry oxygen
  41. anorexia
    loss of appetite
  42. apnea
    lack or absence (a) or breathing (pnea)
  43. asepsis
    being free of disease-producing microbes, a sterile environment
  44. aseptic
    free from germs that cause disease
  45. atrophy
    shrink; the decrease in size or the wasting away of tissue
  46. base of support
    the area on which an object rests
  47. biohazardous waste
    • items contaminated with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions
    • bio means life, hazardous means dangerous
  48. body alignment
    • the way the head, trunk, arms, and legs are aligned w one another
    • posture
  49. body mechanics
    using the body in an efficient and careful way
  50. cheyne-stokes respirations
    • respirations gradually increase in rate and depth and then become shallow and slow
    • breathing may stop (apnea) for 10 to 20 sec
  51. describe the chain of infection
    • Source: a pathogen
    • Reservoir: where it can grow and multiply (carrier)
    • Portal of exit:  means by which to leave the reservoir, such as respiratory, GI, urinary, reproductive tracts, breaks in skin and blood
    • Method of transmission: a way, or vehicle, which transmits the pathogen to another host
    • Portal of entry: Same as portal of exit, except provides a way into new host
    • Susceptible host: needed for microbe to grow & multiply, are persons at risk for infection. Ex: very young or old, ill, exposed to pathogen & who don't follow practices to prevent infection
  52. clean catch/midstream
    • the perineal area is cleaned before catching specimen, reduces # of microbes in urethral area
    • person starts to void into device
    • person stops urine stream, sterile specimen container is positioned
    • person voids into container until specimen is obtained
  53. clear liquid
    • a special diet which include foods liquid at body temperature & which leave small amounts of residue; non irritating and non-gas forming
    • Used post-operative, acute illness, infection, nausea and vomiting, and to prepare for GI exams
  54. closed bed
    • bed that is not in use
    • top linens are not folded back OR the bed is ready for new pt or resident
  55. communicable
    disease caused by pathogens that spread easilya contagious disease
  56. competency evaluation
    a written test and skills test which is set by OBRA
  57. contact precautions
    used for persons with known or suspected infections or conditions that increase the risk of contact transmission
  58. contracture
    the lack of joint mobility caused by abnormal shortening of a muscle
  59. cyanosis, cyanotic
    the appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation
  60. cystitis
    a bladder (cyst) infection (itis) caused by bacteria
  61. death rattle
    noisy breathing common as death nears, due to mucus collecting in the airway
  62. DQ
    • decubitus (pressure) ulcer
    • a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence resulting from pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or frictionany lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissues
  63. DOH
    • Department of Health... each state has one
    • Goal is to protect the public's health through preventing avoidable illness, injury, disability and premature death; assuring access to affordable, quality health care
  64. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  65. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  66. dysuria
    difficulty urinating
  67. empathy
    is seeing things from the person's point of view--putting yourself in the person's place
  68. expectorate
    cough or spit out phlegm from the throat or lungs.
  69. flatus
    gas or air passed through the anus
  70. flexion
    bending a body part
  71. bending a body part
    • also called indwelling catheter
    • is left in the bladder, urine drains constantly into a drainage baga balloon near tip is inflated w sterile water after catheter is inserted, which prevents cath from slipping out
  72. foot drop
    • when the foot falls down at the ankle (permanent plantar flexion)
    • a foot-board is placed so the soles of the feet are flush against it, creating good alignment
  73. orthostatic hypotension
    • abnormally low BP when the person suddenly stands up
    • also called postural hypotension
  74. syncope
    fainting ~ brief loss of consciousness
  75. fowlers position
    a semi sitting position, head is raised btwn 45 & 60 degrees
  76. supine
    • dorsal recumbent position
    • the back-lying position"
    • you can see the super heavens..."
  77. prone
    the person lies on the abdomen w the head turned to one side
  78. lateral position
    • side-laying position
    • person is on side... duh
  79. sims position
    • semi-prone side position: a left side-laying position
    • The upper leg (R leg) is sharply flexed so not on lower L leg
    • lower L arm is behind person
    • (how u like to sleep)
  80. hemiplegia
    paralysis (plegia) on one side (hemi) of the body
  81. hemorrhoids
    • swollen and inflamed veins in your anus and lower rectum
    • may result from straining during bowel movements or from the increased pressure on these veins during pregnancy, among other causes.
  82. HIPPA
    • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
    • protects the privacy and security of a person's health info
  83. holism
    the concept that considers the whole person; the whole person has physical, social, psychological, and spiritual parts that are woven together and cannot be separated
  84. integumentary system
  85. labia
    labia majora & labia minora ~ the two folds of tissue on each side of the vaginal opening
  86. living will
    • measure that support or maintain life when death is likely
    • may instruct doctors to either not start measures that prolong dying or to remove measures that prolong dying
  87. Maslow's hierarchy
    • Abraham Maslow's theory stating basic needs must be met to survive and function, w lower
    • level needs being met before higher level
    • from lowest to highest: 
    • Physical needs
    • safety and security needs
    • Love and belonging needs
    • Self-esteem needs
    • The need for self-actualization
  88. mechanical soft diet
    • semi-solid foods easy to digest
    • Advance from full liquid diet
    • ideal for chewing problems, GI disorders and infections
  89. full liquid diet
    • foods liquid at room temperature of melt at body temp
    • advanced from clear liquid diet for post operative
    • used for stomach irritation, fever, nausea and vomiting, persons unable to chew, swallow, or digest solid foods
  90. medicare vs medicaid
    Medicare is a federal health ins pro for persons 65+, some younger people w disabilities are covered

    Mediaid is a health care payment program, sponsored by federal gov but operated by states. For low income people
  91. mitered corner
    in bed making, a way of tucking in the corner of the bed sheets at the bottom of the mattress
  92. mottling
    • the appearance of uneven spots on the skin as a result of lowered blood flow to the surfaces of the skin
    • A purplish or blotchy red-blue coloring on knees and/ or feet (mottling) is a sign that death is very near.
  93. mucus membrane
    an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages.
  94. nares
    the pair of openings of the nose or nasal cavity
  95. neglect
    failure to provide the person with the goods or services needed to avoid physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness
  96. nosocomial
    • comes from greek word for hospital
    • another word for HAI (healthcare-associated infection)an infection that develops in a person cared for in any setter where health care is given
    • caused by normal flora or microbes
    • transmitted from the person by other sources (colon, body fluids, etc)
  97. medical asepsis
    • also means clean technique
    • the practices used to remove or destroy pathogens and prevent pathogens from spreading from one person or place to another person or place
  98. nursing team
    those who provide care:RN's, LPNs/LVN's, CNA's
  99. objective
    • meaning objective data:information that is seen, heard, felt, or smelled by an observer
    • signs
  100. OSHA
    • Occupational Safety and Health Admin.
    • requires health care employees:understand the risks of hazardous substances
    • Know how to safely handle them
    • mission is to save lives, prevent injuries, and protect the health of America’s workers.
  101. open bed
    in use; the top linens are fan-folded back so the person can get into bed.
  102. how does a closed bed become an open bed
    by fan-folding back the top linens
  103. pallor
    • a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of hemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane. 
    • more evident on the face and palms
  104. paraplegia
    paralysis in the legs and lower trunk
  105. patient rights
    • Developed by the AHA (American Hospital Association) in 2003
    • Patients have the right to:
    • high quality hospital care
    • clean and safe environment
    • involvement in their care
    • protection of privacy
    • preparing to leave
    • help with bill & filing insurance claims
  106. pediculosis
    • Lice
    • the infestation with wingless insects
  107. hirsutism
    excessive body hair
  108. pediculosis capitis
    infestation of the scalp (capitis) w lice"head lice"
  109. pediculosis pubis
    • infestation of the pubic (pubis) hair with lice
    • "crabs"
  110. pediculosis corporis
    the infestation of the body (corporis) with lice
  111. peristalsis
    • Involuntary muscle contractions in the digestive system that move food down the esophagus through the alimentary canal;
    •  the alternating contraction and relaxation of intestinal muscles
  112. pivot
    • pivot joint
    • allows turning from side to side
    • connects the skull to the spine
  113. power of attorney
    a document that allows you to appoint a person or organization to handle your affairs while you're unavailable or unable to do so.
  114. prosthesis
    an artificial replacement for a missing body part
  115. psychosocial
    relates to one's psychological development in, and interaction with, a social environment
  116. quadriplegia
    paralysis in the arms, legs and trunk
  117. residents rights
    • right to information
    • refuse treatment
    • privacy and confidentiality
    • right to make own choices
    • right to voice concerns, ?'s, and complaints about treatment or care
    • right to work or perform services if wanted
    • right to form and take part in social events
    • right to keep and use personal items
    • Freedom from abuse, mistreatment, and neglect
    • freedom from restraintright to quality of life
  118. kinds of restraint
    • physical - any manual method attached to person's body so that they cannot remove easily and restricts freedom of movement
    • Chemical - any drug used for discipline or convenience & not required to treat med Sx
  119. reverse isolation
    isolation procedures designed to protect a patient from infectious organisms that might be carried by the staff, other patients, or visitors from droplets in the air or on equipment or materials
  120. rigor mortis
    the stiffness or rigidity (rigor) of skeletal muscles that occurs after death
  121. self-care deficit
    State in which a person experiences difficulty in performing tasks of daily living, such as feeding self, dressing, bathing, toileting, transferring from bed, and walking
  122. semi-fowlers position
    head of bed is raised 30 degrees; or head of bed is raised 30 degrees and knee portion is raised 15
  123. sodium
    • an electrolyte that dissolves in water
    • needed for fluid balance
    • body retains water if sodium is too high, loss of sodium (through vomiting, diarrhea, some drugs, etc) can result in dehydration
  124. standard universal precautions
    • Part of CDC's isolation precautions
    • they reduce risk of spreading pathogens & reduce risk of spreading known and unknown infections
    • used for all persons whenever care is given
    • prevent spread of infection from blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes
  125. straight catheter
    a catheter that drains the bladder and then is removed
  126. subjective
    • subjective data ~ things a person tells you about that you cannot observe through your senses
    • symptoms
  127. suprapubic catheter
    • a thin, sterile tube used to drain urine from your bladder  when you cannot urinate
    • used if you aren't able to use a catheter that is inserted into the urethra
  128. toe tuck (pleat)
    a fold made in the top bed clothes to provide additional space for patients toes.
  129. TPN
    • Total parenteral nutrition, also called hyperalimentation
    • giving nutrients through a catheter inserted into a vein
    • nutrients do not enter the GI tract
  130. trendelenburgs position
    the head of the bed is lowered and the foot of the bed is raised
  131. tympanic
    pertaining to the eardrum
  132. UNAR
    utah nursing assistant registry
  133. urinary meatus
    the opening or hole (meatus) of the urethra
  134. aphasia
    • the total or partial loss of the ability to use or understand language
    • a language disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain responsible for language
  135. cataracts
    • a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye
    • most are caused by aging
    • risk factors include family history, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, prolonged sun exposure, high BP, obesity, and eye injuries & surgery
  136. diabetes mellitus
    • a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food
    • three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.
  137. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  138. emotional labiality
    • a term used to describe a tendency to laugh or cry unexpectedly at what might seem the wrong moment
    • the regular occurrence of unstable, disproportionate emotional displays
  139. emphysema
    • a type of COPD involving damage to the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. 
    • causes shortness of breath
  140. gerontology
    the study of the aging process
  141. hepatitis b
    • hepatitis is inflammation of the liver
    • Hep B spreads through blood & body fluids of infected person
  142. huntington's disease
    an inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in the brain
  143. multiple sclerosis
    • a chronic disease in which the myelin (sheaths that cover nerve fibers) in brain and spinal cord are destroyed
    • nerve impulses are not sent to and from the brain in normal way
    • Symptoms include vision probs, balance, tingling, paralysis, speech, etc...
  144. parkinson's disease
    • a slow, progressive disorder
    • movement is affected
    • includes tremors, rigid stiff muscles, slow movements, stooped posture
    • many other problems appear over time
  145. pill-rolling
    • rubbing the thumb and index finger
    • occurs in parkinson's
  146. osteoarthritis
    • degenerative joint disease
    • person has joint stiffness, pain and swelling and tenderness
  147. paraphrasing
    restating the persons message in your own words
  148. peripheral vascular disease
    refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and brain a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain. Most commonly the legs are affected
  149. shearing of the skin
    • when the skin sticks to a surface while muscles slide in the direction the body is moving
    • occurs when person slides down in bed or is moved in bed
  150. self-actualization
    • experiencing one's potential
    • involves learning, understanding, and creating to the limit of a person's capacity
    • is highest need in maslow's basic needs for life
  151. skin breakdown
    can range from minor scrapes, cuts, tears, blisters or burns to the most serious pressure ulcers with the destruction of tissue down to and even including the bone.
  152. sterilization
    the process of destroying ALL microbes
  153. tuberculosis
    • a bacterial infection in the lungs
    • can occur in kidneys, bones, joints, nervous system, muscles and other parts of body
    • spread by airborne droplets